Integrated Household Income and Expenditure Survey with Living Standards Measurement Survey 2002-2003
Living Standards Measurement Study [hh/lsms]
The first Living Standards Measurement Survey was carried out in 1995 with technical and financial support from the World Bank and the second Living Standards Measurement Survey followed in 1998 with the support from United Nations Development Programme. The main results of the HIES with LSMS 2002-2003, the third Living Standards Measurement Survey, are not directly comparable with those of previous LSMS, namely 1995 and 1998, nonetheless the paper also tries to indirectly assess poverty trends in the last five years.
The Integrated Household Income and Expenditure Survey with Living Standards Measurement Survey 2002-2003 is one of the biggest national surveys carried out in accordance with an international methodology with technical and financial support from the World Bank and United Nations Development Programme.
This survey was developed in response to provide the picture of the current situation of poverty in Mongolia in relation to social and economic indicators and contribute toward implementation and progress on National Millennium Development Goals articulated in the National Millennium Development Report and monitoring of the Economic Growth Support and Poverty Reduction Strategy, as well as toward developing and designing future policies and actions. Also, the survey enriched the national database on poverty and contributed in improving the professional capacity of experts and professionals of the National Statistical Office of Mongolia.
Since the onset of the transition to a market economy of Mongolia our country the need to study changes in people's living standards in relation to household members' demographic situation, their education, health, employment and household engagement in private enterprises has become extremely important. With that purpose and with the support of the World Bank and the United Nations Development Programme, the National Statistical Office of Mongolia conducted the Integrated Household Income and Expenditure Survey with Living Standards Measurement Survey-like features between 2002 and 2003. In conjunction with LSMS household interviews the NSO also collected a price and a community questionnaire in each selected soum. The latter collected information on the quality of infrastructure, and basic education and health services.
Main importance of the survey is to provide policy makers and decision makers with realistic information about poverty and will become a resource for experts and researchers who are interested in studying poverty as well as social and economic issues of Mongolia.
In July 2003 the Government of Mongolia completed the Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper in which the Government gave high priority to the fight against poverty. As part of that commitment this paper is a study that intends to monitor poverty and understand its main causes in order to provide policy-makers with useful information to improve pro-poor policies.
The Integrated HIES with LSMS design has the peculiarity of being a sub-sample of a larger survey, namely the Household Income and Expenditure Survey 2002. Instead of administering an independent consumption module, the Integrated HIES with LSMS 2002-2003 depends on the HIES 2002 information on household consumption expenditure. This is why the survey is referred as Integrated HIES with LSMS 2002-2003. This survey is the only source of information of income-poverty, and the questionnaire is designed to provide poverty estimates and a set of useful social indicators that can monitor more in general human development, as well as more specific issues on key sectors, such as health, education, and energy. And, the price and social survey, in conjunction with LSMS household interviews, collected information on the quality of infrastructure, and basic education and health services of each selected soum.
HIES - food expenditure and consumption, non-food expenditure, other expense, income
LSMS - general information, household roster, housing, education, employment, health, fertility, migration, agriculture, livestock, non-farm enterprises, other souces of income, savings and loans, remittances, durable goods, energy
PRICE SURVEY - prices of household consumer goods and services
SOCIAL SURVEY - population and households, economy and infrastructure, education, health, agriculture and livestock, and non-agricultural business
The final report of this survey has main results on key poverty indicators, used internationally, as they relate to various social sectors. Its annexes contain information regarding the consumption structure, poverty lines along with the methodology used, as well as some statistical indicators.
The main contributions of this survey report are:
- new poverty estimates based on the latest available household survey, the Integrated HIES with LSMS 2002-2003
- the implementation of appropriate, and internationally accepted, methodologies in the calculation of poverty and its analysis (these methodologies may constitute a reference for the analysis of future surveys)
- a 'poverty profile' that describes the main characteristics of poverty
The first section of the report provides information on the Mongolian economic background, and presents the basic poverty measures that are linked to the economic performance to offer an indication of what happened to poverty and inequality in recent years. A second section goes in much more detail in generating and describing the poverty profile, in particular looking at the geographical distribution of poverty, poverty and its correlation with household demographic characteristics, characteristics of the household head, employment, and assets. A final section looks at poverty and social sectors and investigates various aspects of education, health and safety nets. The report contains also a number of useful, but more technical appendixes with information about the HIES-LSMS 2002-2003 (sample design and data quality), on the methodology used to construct the basic welfare indicator, and set the poverty line, some sensitivity analysis, and additional statistical information.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- Household (defined as a group of persons who usually live and eat together)
- Household member (defined as members of the household who usually live in the household, which may include people who did not sleep in the household the previous night, but does not include visitors who slept in the household the previous night but do not usually live in the household)
- Selected soums (for collecting prices of household consumer goods and services and information on quality of infrastructure, basic education, health services and so on)
Version 02: Edited data, for internal use only.
The scope of "The Integrated Household Income and Expenditure Survey with Living Standards Measurement Survey 2002-2003" includes:
- General information
- Household roster
- Non-farm enterprises
- Other souces of income
- Savings and loans
- Durable goods
Scopes from HIES:
- Food expenditure and consumption
- Non-food expenditure
- Other expense
The scope of the "Price survey in each selected soums" includes:
Price survey questionnaire:
- Prices of household consumer goods and services
The scope of the "Social survey in each selected soums" includes:
Social survey questionnaire:
- Population and households
- Economy and infrastructure
- Agriculture and livestock
- Non-agricultural business
The survey is nationally representative and covers the whole of Mongolia.
The survey covered selected households and all members of the households (usual residents). And the price and social surveys covered all selected soums.
Producers and sponsors
National Statistical Office
Government of Mongolia
United Nations Development Programme, Mongolia
World Bank, Mongolia
United Nations Development Programme, Regional Offices
International Technical assistance
World Bank, Regional Offices
International Technical assistance
United Nations Development Programme
Funding of survey implementation
Funding of survey implementation
The Integrated HIES with LSMS 2002-2003 households are a subset of the household interviewed for the HIES 2002. One third of the HIES 2002 households were contacted again and interviewed on the LSMS topics. The subset was equally distributed among the four quarters.
The HIES 2002, and consequently the Integrated HIES with LSMS 2002-2003, used the 2000 Census as sample frame. 1,248 enumerations areas were part of the sample, which is a two-stage stratified random sample. The strata, or domains of estimation, are four: Ulaanbaatar, Aimag capitals and small towns, Soum centres, and Countryside. At a first stage a number of Primary Sampling Units (PSUs) were selected from each stratum. In the selected PSUs enumerators listed all the households residing in the area, and in a second stage households were randomly selected from the list of households identified in that PSU (10 households were selected in urban areas and 8 households in rural areas).
It should be noted that non-response case of households once selected for the survey exerts unfavorable influence on the representativeness of the survey. Therefore an enumerator should take every step to avoid that. To obtain true and timely survey results a proper agreement should be reached with a selected household before a survey starts. One of the main reasons of non-response is that an enumerator doesn't meet with the household members who are able to give the required information. An enumerator should visit a household at least 3 times within the given period to take the questionnaire.
Another common reason is that a household refuses to participate in the survey. In this case an enumerator should explain the purpose of the survey again, explain that the private data will be kept strictly confidential according to the corresponding law. If necessary an enumerator can ask local statistical division or local administration for the help. However this practice is very seldom.
If there is no possibility to take the questionnaires from the selected households due to weather conditions or disasters, reserved households with numbers 11, 12, 13 respectively from the list provided by the NSO should replace the omitted ones. However the reasons of replacements are to be declared in detail on the form.
Deviations from the Sample Design
At the planning stage the time lag between the HIES and LSMS interviews was expected to be relatively short. However, for various reasons it is on average of about 9 months, and for some households more than one year. Households interviewed in the first and second quarter of 2002 were generally re-interviewed in March and April 2003, while households of the third and fourth quarter of 2002 were re-interviewed in May, June and July of 2003. The considerable time lag between HIES and LSMS interviews was the main responsible for a considerable loss of households in the LSMS sample, households that could not be easily relocated and therefore re-interviewed. Due also to some incomplete questionnaires, the number of households that were used for the final poverty analysis is 3,308.
The use of the sampling procedure of the survey means that households living in different areas of the country have been selected with differing probabilities. Therefore, in order to obtain representative statistics for each of the strata and for Mongolia, it is necessary to use sampling weights. These weights are applied to each household and correspond to the inverse of the probability of selection, calculated taking into account the sampling strategy.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Procedure of data collecting on the LSMS topics of the Integrated HIES with LSMS 2002-2003 was same with the HIES 2002 data collection procedure.
The HIES 2002 interviewed 11,232 households which were equally distributed in four quarters over the period of one year (from February 2002 to January 2003). In fact the HIES collected monthly consumption information for each household in three consecutive months (quarters). Each month, the interviewer left a diary with the household to be used to record all types of expenditures and consumption deriving either from purchases or from own production, gifts, and barter exchanges. A household makes a record on food purchase every day, whereas a record on non-food goods and services purchase is made at the time when it occurs. Founding on these records an enumerator asks a household about monthly consumption and purchase and fills in the survey questionnaire. At the beginning of the following month an enumerator hands the form to the aimag or district statistical division officers who check the adequacy of the filling in. The procedure is followed by data entering (using data entry program from the NSO) and sending compiled data to the NSO by telecommunication in time.
National Statistical Office
Government of Mongolia
A Integrated HIES with LSMS 2002-2003 questionnaire was administered in each household, which collected various information on household consumption. The LSMS questionnaire includes modules as household general information, household roster, housing, education, employment, health, fertility, migration, agriculture, livestock, non-farm enterprises, other souces of income, savings and loans, remittances, durable goods, and energy.
Same, a HIES 2002 questionnaire was administered in each household, which collected various information on household expenditures. Modules which is related to LSMS are food expenditure and consumption, and non-food expenditure.
The LSMS and HIES questionnaires was administered to an adult household member who can best represent other members, and provide information about household consumption, as well as expenditure.
A questionnaire of price survey was administrated in each selected soum's governor, which collected various information on prices of goods and services in the soums. The questionnaire of price survey includes a module as prices of household consumer goods and services.
A questionnaire of social survey was administrated in each selected soum's governor, which collected various information on the quality of infrastructure, education and health services in the soums. The questionnaire of social survey includes modules as population and households, economy and infrastructure, education, health, agriculture and livestock, and non-agricultural business.
The questionnaires were developed in Mongolian, and then were translated into English. And all of the questionnaires and modules are provided as external resources.
The data entry program implemented a considerable number of in-built consistency checks that alerted the data entry operator whenever some clear inconsistency was found in the data. This helped to prevent errors and raised the overall quality of the data. At the analysis stage the dataset was also checked for internal consistency and the number of corrections were overall of a limited amount: excessive expenditure values were checked against the paper questionnaire and corrected whenever a data entry mistake was found.
If we exclude the problems encountered in some field operations in the selection of households, the overall data quality is to be considered of good standard.
More generally some comparisons have been made to check whether the Integrated HIES with LSMS 2002-2003 sample is indeed representative of Mongolia. The age-group population distribution and the sex ratio for these groups have been compared with those of the 2000 Census data. Overall discrepancies seem to be within an acceptable range. Even though the sample was not designed to provide estimates at the regional level, population shares of the Integrated HIES with LSMS 2002-2003 sample are very close to those of the Census 2000 data.
Users of the data agree to keep confidential all data contained in these datasets and to make no attempt to identify, trace or contact any individual whose data is included in these datasets.
Survey datasets are distributed at no cost for legitimate academic research, with the condition that we receive an abstract or a detailed description of any research project that will be using the data prior to authorizing their distribution. Once received, the datasets must not be passed on to other researchers without the written consent of either NSO, WB or UNDP. Copies of all reports and publications based on the requested data must be sent to NSO, WB and UNDP.
Requests for access to the datasets may be made through the website http://www.nso.mn.
The following statement must be used as citation: "Source of data: National Statistical Office of Mongolia, The Integrated Household Income and Expenditure Survey with Living Standards Measurement Survey 2002-2003, v2.0 of the dataset (December 2003), provided by WB and UNDP"
NSO of Mongolia, WB and UNDP provide these data to external users without any warranty or responsibility implied. NSO of Mongolia accepts no responsibility for the results and/or implications of any actions resulting from the use of these data.
National Statistical Office of Mongolia, WB and UNDP
DDI Document ID
National Statistical Office of Mongolia
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 02 (October 2013). Edited version based on Version 01 DDI (DDI-MNG-NSO-EN-IntegratedHIESwithLSMS20022003-v1.0) that was done by Munkhzul Zookhuu (National Statistical Office of Mongolia).