Till the 1999 Labour Force Survey (LFS) there hasn't been a comprehensive national labour force survey representing both urban and rural areas. This 2005 LFS is the second in the series.
The Central Statistical Agency (CSA) has been providing labour force and related data at different levels and with varying details in their content. These include the 1976 Addis Ababa Manpower and Housing Sample Survey, the 1978 Survey on Population and Housing Characteristics of Seventeen Major Towns, the 1980/81 and 1987/88 Rural Labour Force Surveys, the 1984 and 1994 Population and Housing Census, and 2003 and 2004 Urban Bi-annual Employment Unemployment Survey. The 1996 and 2002 Surveys of Informal Sector and most of the household surveys undertaken by the Agency also provide limited information on the area. Still pieces of information in relation to that of employment can also be derived from small, large and medium scale establishment surveys.
Till the 1999 Labour Force Survey (LFS) there hasn't been a comprehensive national labour force survey representing both urban and rural areas. This 2005 LFS is the second in the series. Like the National Labour Force Survey of 1999, it covered both the urban and rural areas of all regions.
The specific objectives of this survey are to:
- generate data on the size of work force that is available to participate in production process;
- determine the status and rate of economic participation of different sub-groups of the population;
- identify those who are actually contributing to the economic development (i.e., employed) and those out of the sphere;
- determine the size and rate of unemployed population; - provide data on the structure of the working population;
- obtain information about earnings from paid employment;
- identify the distribution of employed population working in the formal/informal enterprises; and
- provide time series data and trace changes over time.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Version 1.1: Edited and non anonymized dataset, for internal use only.
The scope of the Labour Force Survey includes:
- Area identification of the selected household collects information regarding area identification of respondents such as Region, Zone, Wereda (District), Town, etc.
- Particulars of household members: it consisted of the general socio-demographic characteristics of the population such as age, sex, educational level, migration status, types and source training and marital status.
- Economic activity during the last twelve months and last seven days: this section covered the usual and current economic activities, number of hours worked as well as reasons for not working during the last twelve months and last seven days,
- Characteristics of persons engaged in productive activities during the last seven days: this section dealt with the characteristics of employed persons such as occupation, industry, terms of employment, employment status, sector of economic engaged in, status of change of employment and underemployment conditions.
- Unemployment and characteristics of unemployed persons: this section focused on the size and characteristics of the unemployed population.
- Economic activity of children aged 5 - 14 years in economic activities, such as, school enrollment status, whether worked in the last seven days, etc.
The survey covered all rural and urban parts of the country except all zones of Gambella region excluding Gambella town, and the non-sedentary population of three zones of Afar & six zones of Somali regions.
The survey covered all households in selected sample areas except residents of collective quarters, homeless persons and foreigners.
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistical Agency
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Government of Ethiopia
Funding the study
The list of households obtained from the 2001/2 Ethiopian Agricultural Sample Enumeration (EASE) is used to select EAs from the rural part of the country. For urban sample EAs on the other hand the list consisting of households by EA, which was obtained from the 2004 Ethiopian Urban Economic Establishment Census, (EUEEC) was used as a frame. A fresh list of households from each urban and rural EA was prepared at the beginning of the survey period. The list was then used as a frame for selecting sample households of each EAs.
For the purpose of the survey the country was divided into three broad categories. That is; rural, major urban center and other urban center categories.
Category I: Rural: - This category consists of the rural areas of 8 regions and two city administrations found in the country. Regarding the survey domains, each region or city administration was considered to be a domain (Reporting Level) for which major findings of the survey are reported. This category totally comprises 10 reporting levels. A stratified two-stage cluster sample design was used to select samples in which the primary sampling units (PSUs) were EAs. Households per sample EA were selected as a second Stage Sampling Unit (SSU) and the survey questionnaire finally administered to all members of sample households.
Category II:- Major urban centers:- In this category all regional capitals and 15 other major urban centers that had a population size of 40,000 or more in 2004 were included. Each urban center in this category was considered as a reporting level. The category has totally 26 reporting levels. In this category too, in order to select the samples, a stratified two-stage cluster sample design was implemented. The primary sampling units were EAs. Households from each sample EA were then selected as a Second Stage Unit.
Category III: - Other urban centers: Urban centers in the country other than those under category II were grouped into this category. Excluding Gambella a domain of other urban centers is formed for each region. Consequently seven reporting levels were formed in this category. Harari, Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa do not have urban centers other than that grouped in category II. Hence, no domain was formed for these regions under this category. Unlike the above two categories a stratified three stage cluster sample design was adopted to select samples from this category. The primary sampling units were urban centers and the second stage sampling units were EAs. Households from each EA were finely selected at the third stage and the survey questionnaires administered for all of them.
SAMPLE SIZE AND SELECTION SCHEME:
Category I: - Totally 830 EAs and 24,900 households were selected from this category. Sample EAs of each reporting level were selected using Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) systematic sampling technique; size being number of household obtained from the 2001/2 Ethiopian Agricultural Sample Enumeration. From the fresh list of households prepared at the beginning of the survey 30 households per EA were systematically selected and surveyed.
Category II: - In this category 720 EAs and 21,600 households were selected. Sample EAs from each reporting level in this category were also selected using probability proportional to size systematic sampling; size being number of households obtained from the 2004 EUEEC. From the fresh list of households prepared at the beginning of the survey 30 households per EA were systematically selected and covered by the study.
Category III:-127 urban centers, 275 EAs and 8,250 households were selected in this category. Urban centers from each domain and EAs from each urban center were selected using probability proportional to size systematic selection method; size being number of households obtained from the 2004 EUEEC. From the fresh listing of each EA 30 households were systematically selected and the study carried out on the 30 households ultimately selected.
Note: Distribution of number of samples planned and covered from each domain are given in the Summary Table 2.1, Table 2.2 and Table 2.3 of the 2005 National Labour Force Survey report which is provided as external resource.
Ultimately 100.00 % EAs and 99.84% household were covered by the survey. Regarding urban parts of the country it was initially planned to cover 995 EAs and 29,850 households, eventually 100% of the EAs and 99.24% of the households were successfully covered by the survey.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
The data collection operation of the survey involved a total of about 1935 enumerators and about 412 field supervisors involved with an average supervisor enumerator ratio of 1:5.
Data Collection Notes
Training of Field Staff:
The training program of enumerators, supervisors and other field and office staff was conducted in two stages. The first stage training was conducted at the head quarters of the Central Statistical Agency (CSA), in Addis Ababa for about seven days. The participants were selected from professionals and sub-professionals with long time experiences, branch office heads, and statisticians/coordinators, who were to train enumerators and supervisors during the second stage of training conducted at the Branch Statistical Offices. The training was guided by an enumerator/ supervisor manual occupation and industry code book, which consist of detailed explanation of concepts, ideas and instructions on how to fill each entry in the questionnaire.
The second stage of training was organized for all field staff and was conducted at branch statistical offices. Those who were trained at the head office in turn gave similar training for enumerators and field supervisors for about nine days. The training consisted of classroom discussions on concepts and definitions, techniques of filing the questionnaire as well as mock-interview and one-day field practice followed by general discussion. The objectives of mock interview and field practice were twofold. First, it enabled to assess how well the theoretical class discussions were understood by all participants. The second objective was to examine the difficulty which would likely be encountered during actual fieldwork. The discussions were intended to exchange experiences among participants and pinpoint the areas of the survey questions that need more care and attention.
All the Branch Statistical Offices of the CSA participated in the survey undertaken, that is, in organizing the second stage of training, in deploying the field staff to their respective sites of assignment, and retrieving completed questionnaires and submitting them to the head office for data processing. They were also responsible in administering the financial and logistic aspect of the survey as well as field supervision within the areas of their assignment.
Organization of the Fieldwork:
In order to carry out this survey with the desired level of quality, there was a need to organize a large staff that performs the various survey activities. The 25 Branch Statistical Offices of the Agency carried out the data collection operation. These offices have permanent and contract enumerators stationed in the selected enumeration areas. The data collection operation of the survey involved a total of about 1935 enumerators and about 412 field supervisors involved with an average supervisor-enumerator ratio of 1:5.
The interviews were conducted by going from house-to-house using a structured questionnaire and relevant codebook. The data was collected from each sampled household and the respondent from whom the information collected was the head of the household or other responsible household member. Most of the enumerators were assigned to 2-3 sampled enumeration areas in which they could easily converse with the respondent's dialect. Interpreters were made available in cases where there is difficulty to converse. Data collection took place in March 2005.
In some of the sample sites the data collection was carried out in phases. That is, after completing the data collection in the selected enumeration area enumerators were shifted to another sample sites to carry out the same exercise. Field supervision was undertaken side by side with the data collection. During the survey data collection operation, close and regular supervision was undertaken at various levels. Spot checks, re-interviewing and a thorough scrutiny of filled-in questionnaires were applied to ensure that the data collection activities being carried out according to the given instruction. In addition to this, the statisticians in branch statistical offices and branch statistical office heads made supervision of the data collection operation.
Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
The survey has used a structured questionnaire to produce the required data. Before taking its final shape, the draft questionnaire was tested by undertaking a pre-test. The pre-test was conducted in Addis Ababa, Sendoffs, Teji and their vicinity. Based on the findings of the pre-test, the content, layout and presentation of the questionnaire was amended comments and inputs on the draft contents of the survey questionnaire obtained from user-producer forum were also incorporated in the final questionnaire.
The contents of the questionnaire and methods used in this survey were further improved based on comment of international consultant. The consultancy was obtained as part of a joint World Bank/IMF project to improve statistics of countries in Anglo-phone Africa participating in the General Data Dissemination System (GDDS).
The questionnaire was organized in to five sections;
Section 1 - Area identification of the selected household: this section dealt with area identification of respondents such as region, zone, wereda, etc.,
Section 2 - Socio- demographic characteristics of households: it consisted of the general sociodemographic characteristics of the population such as age, sex, education, status and type of disability, status and types of training, marital status and fertility questions.
Section 3 - Productive activities during the last seven days: this section dealt with a range of questions which helps to see the status and characteristics of employed persons in a current status approach such as hours of work in productive activities, occupation, industry, employment status, and earnings from employment. Also questions included are hours spent on fetching water, collection of firewood, and domestic chores and place of work.
Section 4 - Unemployment and characteristics of unemployed persons: this section focused on the size and characteristics of the unemployed population.
Section 5 - Economic activities during the last twelve months: this section covered the usual economic activity status (refereeing to the long reference period), number of weeks of employment /unemployment/inactive, reasons for inactivity, employment status, whether working in the agricultural sector or not and the proportion of income gained from non-agricultural sector. The questionnaire used in the field for data collection was prepared in Amharic language. Most questions have pre-coded answers. A copy of the questionnaire translated to English is provided as external resource.
Data Editing, Coding and Verification:
The filled-in questionnaires that were retrieved from the field were first subjected to manual editing and coding. During the fieldwork the enumerator, the field supervisors, Statisticians and the heads of branch statistical offices have done some editing. However, the major editing operation was carried out at the head office. All the edited questionnaires were again fully verified and checked for consistency before they were submitted to the data entry.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Estimation procedures of totals, ratios and sampling errors are presented ANNEX III of the 2005 National Labour Force Survey report which is provided as external resource.
The Central Statistical Agency (CSA) is committed to achieving excellence in the provision of timely, reliable and affordable official statistics for informed decision making in order to maximize the welfare of all Ethiopians. This is achieved through the collection and analysis of censuses, surveys and the use of administrative data as well as the dissemination a range of statistical products and providing assistance and services to users. A microdata dissemination policy is established by CSA to address the conditions and the manner in which anonymized microdata files may be released to users for research purposes. It also strives to identify the different levels of anonymization for different categories of data use. This policy is available at CSA website (www.csa.gov.et <http://www.csa.gov.et>).
CSA will release microdata files for use by researchers for scientific research purposes when:
The Director General is satisfied that all reasonable steps have been taken to prevent the identification of individual respondents The release of the data will substantially enhance the analytic value of the data that have been collected For all but purely public files, researchers disclose the nature and objectives of their intended research, It can be demonstrated that there are no credible alternative sources for these data, and The researchers have signed an appropriate undertaking.
Terms and conditions of use of public data files are the following:
The data and other materials provided by CSA will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of CSA. The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations. No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the CSA. No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by CSA, or among data from the CSA and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations. Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from CSA will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset. An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to CSA. The original collector of the data, CSA, and the relevant funding agencies bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
Cost Recovery Policy:
It is the policy of CSA to encourage broad use of its products by making them affordable for users. Accordingly, CSA attempts to ensure that the costs of creating anonymized microdata files are built-in to the survey budget. At the same time, CSA attempts to recover costs associated with the provisions of special services that benefit only a specific group. Information on the price of each dataset is available at CSA website (www.csa.gov.et <http://www.csa.gov.et>).
"Central Statistical Authority of Ethiopia (CSA), Labour Force Survey 2005 (LFS 2005), v1.1, provided by the National Data Archive. http://www.csa.gov.et/"
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Central Statistical Agency
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Production and documentation of the study
Accelerated Data Program
International Household Survey Network
Review of the metadata
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 02 (October 2013). Edited version based on Version 1.1 (December 2010) DDI (DDI_ETH_2005_LFS_v1.1_M) that was done by Central Statistical Agency, Ethiopia and reviewed by Accelerated Data Program, International Household Survey Network.