The Central Statistical Authority (CSA) has been conducting Agricultural Sample Surveys on annual basis since 1980-1981 (1973 E.C.) to produce some of the statistical data that can be used in planning and policy making activities. The survey was interrupted in 1992-1993 (1985 E.C.) and 1993-1994 (1986 E.C.) because during these two years the CSA was fully engaged in undertaking the preparatory activities for the 1994 Population and Housing Census. However, after, undertaking the 1994 Population and Housing Census, the annual agricultural survey was resumed in 1994-1995 (1987 E.C.), and also conducted for the year 1995-1996 (1988 E.C.). It has since been conducted in 1996-1997, 1997-1998, 1998-1999, 1999-2000, 2000-2001, 2003-2004, 2004-2005, 2005-2006, and 2007-2008.
For the past three decades, the Central Statistical Agency (CSA) has been conducting the agricultural sample survey under which four integrated sample surveys designed for the collection of agricultural information on the performances of the sector were launched all over the country and used to disseminate the survey results to ultimate users’ on annual basis. The 2008/09 (2001 E.C.), Belg Season Crop Production Sample Survey, for which this report is meant for, is among the four integrated sample surveys launched on annual basis under the umbrella of the agricultural sample survey all over the country.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Household, holder, crop
v1.1: Edited and non anonymized dataset, for internal use only.
The scope of annual Agricultural Sample Survey included:
- Area identification and characteristics of agricultural holder's. This included household's geographic locations, holder's age, holder's sex and educational status.
- List of fields and agricultural practices for pure stand and mixed crops.
- List of permanent crops and number of tress.
- Records of quantity of improved seed, fertilizers and information on crop protection.
- Records of results of area measurements.
- List and selection of fields for crop cutting and details of record of crop cutting.
Agriculture & Rural Development
Food (production, crisis)
Land (policy, resource management)
The 2008-2009 (2001 E.C) annual Agricultural Sample Survey ("Meher" season) covered the entire rural parts of the country except the non-sedentary population of three zones of Afar & six zones of Somali regions. Accordingly the survey took into account of all parts of Harari, Dire Dawa, and 68 Zones / special weredas (that are treated as zones) of other regions
Agricultural households from the sampled areas
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistical Agency
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Government of Ethiopia
Funding the study
The list containing EAs of all regions and their respective households obtained from the 1999 E.C cartographic census frame was used as the sampling frame in order to select the primary sampling units (EAs). Consequently, all sample EAs were selected from this frame based on the design proposed for the survey. The second stage sampling units, households, were selected from a fresh list of households that were prepared for each EA at the beginning of the survey.
In order to select the sample a stratified two-stage cluster sample design was implemented. Enumeration areas (EAs) were taken to be the primary sampling units (PSUs) and the secondary sampling units (SSUs) were agricultural households. The sample size for the 2008/09 agricultural sample survey was determined by taking into account of both the required level of precision for the most important estimates within each domain and the amount of resources allocated to the survey. In order to reduce non-sampling errors, manageability of the survey in terms of quality and operational control was also considered. Except Harari, and Dire Dawa, where each region as a whole was taken to be the domain of estimation; each zone of a region / special wereda was adopted as a stratum for which major findings of the survey are reported.
Enumeration areas from each stratum were selected systematically using probability proportional to size sampling technique; size being number of agricultural households. The sizes for EAs were obtained from the 1999 E.C cartographic census frame. From the fresh list of households prepared at the beginning of the survey 20 agricultural households within each sample EA were selected systematically.
Deviations from the Sample Design
A total of 2,290 Enumeration Areas (EAs) were selected. However, due to various reasons that are beyond control, in 48 EAs the survey could not be successful and hence interrupted.
The Annual Agricultural Sample survey (Meher season) was conducted on the basis of 20 agricultural households selected from each EA. Regarding the ultimate sampling units, it was intended to cover a total of 45,800 agricultural households, however, 44,922 (98 %) were actually covered by the survey.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
ORGANIZATION OF FIELD WORK:
The conduct of a survey cannot be executed without the arrangement of fieldwork. In recognition of this, the organization of fieldwork has been entrusted to the Department of Regional Offices and Field Operations that liaises between the Head Office and the 25 Branch Statistical Offices spread across the regions. All Branch Offices took part in the survey execution especially in recruiting the enumerators, organizing the 2nd stage training, assigning the field staff to their sites of enumeration, supervising the data collection and retrieving completed questionnaires and submitting them to the Head Office for data processing.
The Branch Offices were also responsible for administering the financial and logistic aspects of the survey within their areas of operation. A total of 2384 enumerators, 529 field supervisors, 46 coordinators and 62 statisticians were involved in the data collection where on the average one supervisor was assigned to five enumeration areas for supervision of data collection. All the enumerators were supplied with the necessary survey equipment after the completion of the training to ensure the smooth operation of the survey. To facilitate the data collection activities, a total of 194 four-wheel drive vehicles were used.
TRAINING OF FIELD STAFF:
The execution of a survey and quality of data acquired from the survey highly depend on the type of training given to the enumerators and supervisors and the consequent understanding of the tasks to be performed and the standard procedures to be followed by the enumerators and supervisors in the survey undertaking. The quality and completeness of data are ensured when the training meets its objective of producing responsible and fervent enumerators and supervisors.
In light of this point, the training was given to the field staff in two stages. The first stage training, which took place at the Head Quarters of CSA and lasted 7 days targeted staff from the Head Office, statisticians and senior field supervisors from Branch Statistical Offices. The staff that took part in the first stage training was then assigned to conduct similar training for the enumerators and other supervisors for 12 days in all the twenty- five Branch Statistical Offices distributed across the country.
In the training the field staff was given detailed classroom instruction on how to collect data, method of area measurement, interviewing procedures, etc. The training also included field practice to reinforce the understanding of concepts, definitions and theories discussed in the classroom with regard to field measurement, crop cutting and interviewing methods.
METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION:
The agricultural data for the year 2008/09(2001 E.C) was collected from sedentary rural peasant households by interviewing the selected agricultural holders and physically measuring their fields to obtain data on crop yields and other items of interest.
The data obtained were recorded in various forms designed for this purpose. Instruments like measuring tape; compass, kitchen balance, scientific calculators and others were used during data collection for a timely and smooth acquisition of accurate data. The procedures for measuring area under crop and area of non - crop fields operated by the holders were performed for the 30 selected households from each sampled E.A. using measuring tapes and compasses.
Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
The 2008-2009 annual Agricultural Sample Survey used structured questionnaires to collect agricultural information from selected sample households.
List of forms in the questionnaires:
- AgSS Form 2001/0: It contains forms that used to list all households in the sample areas.
- AgSS Form 2001/1: It contains forms that used to list selected agricultural households and holders in the sample areas.
- AgSS Form 2001/2A: It contains forms that used to collect information about crops, results of area measurements covered by crops and other land uses.
- AgSS Form 2001/2B: It contains forms that used to collect information about miscellaneous questions for the holders.
- AgSS Form 2001/4: It contains forms that used to collect information about list of temporary crop fields for selecting crop cutting plots.
- AgSS Form 2001/5: It contains forms that used to collect information about list of temporary crop cutting results.
Note: The questionnaires are presented in the Appendix IV of the 2008-2009 Agricultural Sample Survey report, Volume I which is provided as external resource.
Editing, Coding and Verification
Statistical data editing plays an important role in ensuring the quality of the collected survey data. It minimizes the effects of errors introduced while collecting data in the field, hence the need for data editing, coding and verification. Although coding and editing are done by the enumerators and supervisors in the field, respectively, verification of this task is done at the Head Office.
An editing, coding and verification instruction manual was prepared and reproduced for this purpose. Then 54 editors-coders and verifiers were trained for two days in editing, coding and verification using the aforementioned manual as a reference and teaching aid. The completed questionnaires were edited, coded and later verified on a 100 % basis before the questionnaires were passed over to the data entry unit. The editing, coding and verification exercise of all questionnaires took 21 days.
Data Entry, Cleaning and Tabulation
Before data entry, the Natural Resources and Agricultural Statistics Department of the CSA prepared edit specification for the survey for use on personal computers for data consistency checking purposes. The data on the edited and coded questionnaires were then entered into personal computers. The data were then checked and cleaned using the edit specifications prepared earlier for this purpose. The data entry operation involved about 90 data encoders, 10 data encoder supervisors, 13 data cleaning operators and 55 personal computers. The data entered into the computers using the entry module of the CSPRO (Census and Survey Processing System) software, which is a software package developed by the United States Bureau of the Census. Following the data entry operations, the data was further reviewed for data inconsistencies, missing data ...etc. by the regular professional staff from Natural Resources and Agricultural Statistics Department. The final stage of the data processing was to summarizing the cleaned data and produce statistical tables that present the results of the survey using the tabulation component of the PC based CSPRO software produced by professional staff from Data processing Department.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Estimation procedure of totals, ratios, sampling error and the measurement of precision of estimates (CV) are given in Appendix I and II of Agricultural Sample Survey 2008-2009 report, Volume I which is provided as external resource. Distribution of sampling units (sampled and covered EAs and households) by stratum is also presented in Appendix III.
The Central Statistical Agency (CSA) is committed to achieving excellence in the provision of timely, reliable and affordable official statistics for informed decision making in order to maximize the welfare of all Ethiopians. This is achieved through the collection and analysis of censuses, surveys and the use of administrative data as well as the dissemination a range of statistical products and providing assistance and services to users.
A microdata dissemination policy is established by CSA to address the conditions and the manner in which anonymized microdata files may be released to users for research purposes. It also strives to identify the different levels of anonymization for different categories of data use. This policy is available at CSA website (http://www.csa.gov.et).
CSA will release microdata files for use by researchers for scientific research purposes when:
The Director General is satisfied that all reasonable steps have been taken to prevent the identification of individual respondents.
The release of the data will substantially enhance the analytic value of the data that have been collected For all but purely public files, researchers disclose the nature and objectives of their intended research, It can be demonstrated that there are no credible alternative sources for these data, and
The researchers have signed an appropriate undertaking.
Terms and conditions of use of public data files are the following:
The data and other materials provided by CSA will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of CSA.
The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the CSA.
No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by CSA, or among data from the CSA and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from CSA will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset.
An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to CSA.
The original collector of the data, CSA, and the relevant funding agencies bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
Cost Recovery Policy:
It is the policy of CSA to encourage broad use of its products by making them affordable for users. Accordingly, CSA attempts to ensure that the costs of creating anonymized microdata files are built-in to the survey budget.
At the same time, CSA attempts to recover costs associated with the provisions of special services that benefit only a specific group. Information on the price of each dataset is available at CSA website (www.csa.gov.et )
"Central Statistical Authority of Ethiopia (CSA), Agricultural Sample Survey Belg 2008-2009 (AgSSB 2008), v01, provided by the National Data Archive. http://www.csa.gov.et"
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Central Statistical Agency
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Production and documentation of the study
Accelerated Data Program
International Household Survey Network
Review of the metadata
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 02 (October 2013). Edited version based on Version 1.1 (December 2010) DDI (DDI_ETH_2008_ASSBS_v1.1_M) that was done by Central Statistical Agency, Ethiopia and reviewed by Accelerated Data Program, International Household Survey Network.