The LFS is conducted a quarterly basis particularly every first month of the quarter. The October 2007 Labor Force Survey is the 134th Series of survey on labor statistics started in 1956.
The LFS aims to provide a quantitative framework for the preparation of plans and formulation of policies affecting the labor market. Specifically, the survey is designed to provide statistics on levels and trends of employment, unemployment and underemployment for the country as a whole, and for each of the administrative regions, including provinces and key cities.
Importance of LFS
a. It provides a quantitative framework for the preparation of plans and formulation of policies affecting the labor market towards
1) creation and generation of gainful employment and livelihood opportunities
2) reduction of unemployment and promotion of employment
3) improvement of working conditions
4) enhancement of the welfare of a working man
b. It provides statistics on levels and trends of employment and unemployment and underemployment for the country and regions;
c. It is used for the projection of future manpower, which when compared with the future manpower requirements, will help identify employment and training needs;
d. It helps in the assessment of the potential manpower available for economic development; and
e. It identifies the differences in employment, unemployment, and underemployment according to the different economic, social and ethnic groups existing within the population.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The unit of analysis is the Individual (Household survey).
v1.0 Final data, for public use.
Starting with the July 2003 round of the Labor Force Survey, the generation of the labor force and employment statistics adopted the 2003 Master Sample Design.
* Using this new master sample design, the number of samples increased from 41,000 to around 51,000 sample households.
* The province of Basilan is grouped under Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao while Isabela City (Basilan) is now grouped under Region IX, in accordance with Executive Order No. 36.
* The 1992 four-digit code for Philippine Standard Occupational Classification (PSOC) and 1994 Philippine Standard Industry Classification (PSIC) were used in classifying the occupation and industry.
The current concept used in the Philippines LFS considered a person unemployed if he has no job/business during the reference week and is actively looking for work. Also considered as unemployed are persons without a job or business who are reported not looking for work because of the belief that no work was available, or because of temporary illness/disability, bad weather, pending job application or waiting for job interview.
The ILO concept of unemployment, on the other hand, states that a person is unemployed if he has no job or business during the reference week and is reported available and actively looking for work. Persons who do not have a job/business and are available for work but did not look for work because of the belief that no work is available, for reasons such as temporary illness/disability, bad weather, awaiting results of job application and waiting for rehire/job recall are also considered as unemployed.
With regard to persons not in the labor force, both concepts considered those who are not employed nor unemployed during the reference week. These include persons who are not available for work. Also included are those who are available for work but are not looking for work because of reasons such as schooling, housekeeping, retirement or old age, or other reasons such as disability or infirmity.
Statistical tables for 1988 using the ILO concept on unemployment were previously published in ISH Bulletin (Series No. 60, 1991). After then, the succeeding series of ISH Bulletin included only statistical tables for the current concept of unemployment which considered the criterion on looking for work, and excluded the availability criterion. Starting with the October 1999 series of ISH Bulletin, a comparative table for the Philippine concept and the ILO concept on unemployment is included.
The survey involves the collection of data on the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the population in general. It covers a nationwide sample of households deemed sufficient to measure the levels of employment and unemployment at the national and regional levels.
The scope of the survey includes the following:
- Demographic Characteristics: relationship to household head, age, sex, marital status, education and school attendance, overseas Filipino
- Economic characteristics (persons 5 years old and over): Occupation during past week, kind of business/industry
- Economic activity (persons 15 years and older): Nature of employment.
Class of Worker
Nature of Employment
The geographic coverage consists of the country's 17 administrative regions defined in Executive Order (EO) 36 and 131. The 17 regions are:
National Capital Region (NCR)
Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)
Region I - Ilocos
Region II - Cagayan Valley
Region III - Central Luzon
Region IV-A - Calabarzon
Region IV-B - Mimaropa
Region V - Bicol
Region VI - Western Visayas
Region VII - Central Visayas
Region VIII - Eastern Visayas
Region IX - Zamboanga Peninsula
Region X - Northern Mindanao
Region XI - Davao
Region XII - Soccsksargen
Region XIII - Caraga
Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM)
The LFS has as its target population, all households and members of households nationwide. A household is defined as an aggregate of persons, generally but not necessarily bound by ties of kinship, who live together under the same roof and eat together or share in common the household food. Household membership comprises the head of the household, relatives living with him such as his or her spouse, children, parent, brother or sister, son-in-law or daughter-in-law, grandson or granddaughter, and other relatives. Household membership likewise includes boarders, domestic helpers and non-relatives. A person who lives alone is considered a separate household.
Since the reporting unit is the household, the statistics emanating from this survey will refer to the characteristics of the population residing in private households. Persons who reside in the institutions are not within the scope of the survey. Also excluded in the target population are households in the least accessible barangays (LABs). A barangay is classified as LAB if: (a) it requires more than eight hours walk from the last vehicle station; and/or, (b) the frequency of transportation is less than three times a week and the cost of a one-way trip is more than five hundred pesos. A total of 350 barangays were classified as LABs. This number accounts for only 0.83 percent of the total number of barangays in the country. The total number of households in these areas account for only 0.38 percent of the total number of households surveyed.
Producers and sponsors
National Statistics Office
National Economic and Development Authority
Technical assistance in sampling design and methodology
National Statistical Coordination Board
Formulates policies, delineates responsibilities, sets priorities and standards on statistics and administers the one-stop statistical information center
Bureau of Labor and Employment Statistics
Department of Labor and Employment
The sampling design of the LFS uses the sampling design of the 2003 Master Sample (MS) for Household Survey that started July 2003.
As in previous household surveys, the 2003 MS used an area sample design. The Enumeration Area Reference File (EARF) of the 2000 Census of Population and Housing (CPH) was utilized as sampling frame. The EARF contains the number of households by enumeration area (EA) in each barangay.
With the conduct of the 2003 Listing of Households, the number of households of the selected sampled EA from the CPH EA lists were updated and the sample sizes that were initially generated where subsequently adjusted.
Prior to sample selection, the PSUs in each domain were stratified as follows:
a) Proportion of strong houses (PSTRONG) - PSTRONG is defined to be the percentage of housing units occupied by households that are classified as made of strong materials in terms of both the roof and outer walls, based on the data from the 2000 CPH. A roof is considered made of strong material if it is made of either galvanized iron, aluminum, concrete/clay tile, half galvanized-half concrete, or asbestos. The outer wall is considered made of strong material if it is made of concrete, brick, stone, wood, half concrete-half wood, galvanized iron, asbestos, glass.
b) A variable labeled AGRI - An initial variable is an indicator variable computed at the barangay level. That variable has the value 1 if more than 50 percent of the households in the barangay are engaged in agriculture or fisheries and 0 otherwise, based on the 2000 CPH Barangay Schedule. To obtain a measure at the PSU level, a weighted average of the barangay indicator variable was computed for all the barangays within the PSU, weighted by the total number of households, in the barangay. Thus, the 1 value of AGRI at the PSU level lies between 0 and 1.
c) Per capita income (PER CAPITA) - PERCAPITA is defined as the total income of the municipality divided by the total population in that municipality. Note that the PERCAPITA value of the PSUs is the same if the PSUs are in the same municipality. The municipal income used was the 2000 municipal income sourced from the De4partment of Finance. If the 2000 municipal income was not reported to the Bureau of Local Government Finance (BLGF), 2001 income was used. If no 2000 or 2001 municipal income was reported, the median income of the municipal class of the municipality was used.
The sample design is an epsem in each region (Equal Probability Selection for each Member). Given the overall sample, the number of PSUs, EAs and Housing Units (HUs) were determined so that the epsem property within region was preserved.
The PSUs were selected with probability proportional to some estimated measure of size (PPES). Since PSUs vary considerably in size, PSUs were identified as certainty and non-certainty PSUs. Each PSU which was selected with certainty (selection probability is greater than 1) was treated as a separate stratum. In each certainty selection, sample EAs were selected with PPES in each sampled PSU; and housing units (HU) were selected with equal probability in each sampled EA.
A housing unit is structurally separate and independent place of abode which by the way it has been constructed, converted, or arranged, is intended for habitation by a household. It may contain more than one household. In the 2000 CPH, about two percent of the total household population consist of two or more households.
For non-certainty selection, PSUs were sampled from a set of strata defined for each domain. In each domain, these PSUs were grouped into strata by province, Highy Urbanized Cities (HUC) or Independent Component Cities (ICCs). To further improve on the precision of the estimates, PSUs within province/HU/ICC stratum were further stratified with respect to some socio-economic variables that were associated with poverty.
Within each selected PSUs, EAs were selected with probability proportional to size and households with equal probability within selected EAs.
In each HU, all households were selected. However, for operational considerations, only 3 households will be selected with equal probability in HU consisting of more than 3 households.
The 2003 Master Sample consist of a sample of 2,835 PSUs of which 330 were certainty PSUs and 2,505 were non certainty PSUs. The number of households for the 2000 CPH was used as measure of size. The entire MS was divided into four sub-sample or independent replicates, such as a quarter sample contains one fourth of the PSUs found in one replicate; a half-sample contains one-half of the PSUs in two replicates.
For the purpose of the master sample, the sample EAs selected with certainty were classified as sub-sample of replicate 0, and all the non-certainty PSUs were classified in any of the sub-samples 1, 2, 3 and 4.
Deviations from the Sample Design
Replacement of sample households is allowed only if the respondent to LFS cannot be contracted after 3 callbacks. If the sample household moved out from the sample barangay and can no longer be located then the replacement should be the household currently residing in the housing unit previously occupied by the original sample. If no household currently residing in the aforementioned housing unit then a replacement may be selected from among the neighbors who has the closest socio-economic and demographic characteristics as the original sample household. Household members who are identified as eligible respondents but cannot be interviewed should never be replaced.
Of the total households selected for October 2007 LFS, 44,097 were considered eligible households where 95.0 percent or 41,890 households responded.
Among the regions, Ilocos Region, CALABARZON and Cordillera Administrative Region had the highest response rates of 96.8 percent, 96.7 percent and 96.4 percent, respectively. Zamboanga Peninsula registered the lowest repsonse rate of 92.2 percent.
Region Response Rate
National Capital Region 94.1
I - Ilocos Region 96.8
II - Cagayan Valley 96.0
III - Central Luzon 95.2
IVA - CALABARZON 96.7
IVB - MIMAROPA 93.0
V - Bicol Region 96.2
VI - Western Visayas 95.7
VII - Central Visayas 95.6
VIII - Eastern Visayas 94.8
IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 92.2
X - Northern Mindanao 95.8
XI - Davao Region 94.1
XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 94.1
XIII - Caraga 92.8
Autonomous Region in
Muslim Mindanao 93.1
Calculation of Basic Weights
Following a standard approach, the weights to be used in analyzing surveys based on the 2003 MS are developed in three stages.
- First, base weights are computed to compensate for the unequal selection probabilities in the sample design.
- Second, the base weights are adjusted to compensate for unit non-response.
- Third , the non-response adjusted weights are further adjusted to make some weighted sample distributions conform to distributions obtained from another source.
Please refer the more detailed explanation on the three stages of the weights with the given formula based on the 2003 Master Sample provided in the External Resources.
Final Survey Weight
- The final survey weight assigned to each responding unit is computed as the product of the base weight, the non-response adjustment, and the population weighting adjustment, as described above. The final weights should be used in all analyses to produce valid estimates of population parameters.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
- The RDs/OICs, PSOs, Regional and Provincial Staff were allotted a number of days to supervise the enumeration. Likewise, Central Office Statisticians were assigned to provinces to supervise and monitor the conduct of the survey.
- The Regional Director/Officer-In-Charge (RDs/OICs) provided the general supervision to the staff of the provincial offices under the jurisdiction on all administrative matters and field operations relative to the survey.
- The Provincial Statistics Officers (PSOs) supervised the activities of the personnel to ensure that the data collection is finished according to the timetable set.
- The Regional and Provincial Statistician supervised in the field, and review and edit questionnaires while still in their area of assignment.
National Statistics Office
- ISH FORM 2 is a four-page, forty five-column questionnaire that is being used in the quarterly rounds of the Laor Force Survey nationwide. This questionnaire gathers data on the demographic and economic characteristics of the population.
- On the first page of the questionnaire, the particulars about the geographic location, design codes and household auxiliary information of the sample household that is being interviewed are to be recorded. Certifications by the enumerator and his supervisor regarding the manner by which the data are collected are likewise to be made on this page.
- The inside pages of the questionnaire contain the items to be determined about each member of the sample household. Items 3 to 10 are for the demographic characteristics; columns 2 to 7 are to be ascertained of all members of the household regardless of age. Items 8 to 45, on the other hand, are the series of items that will be asked of all the members 5 years of age or over to determine their labor force and employment characteristics.
- Most of the questions have pre-coded responses. The possible answers with their corresponding codes are printed at the bottom of the page for easy reference. Only the appropriate codes need to be entered in the cells.
- Other items, however, require write-in entries such as column 11 (main activity), column 15 and 29 (primary and other occupation), etc. For such items, it is required that the enumerator describes the main activity or occupation, etc.
The questionnaire used was the revised version as of January 2001 with inclusion on salaries and wages, new entrants, other occupation among others.
Data processing involves two stages: manual processing and machine processing.
- Manual processing refers to the manual editing and coding of questionnaires. This is done prior to machine processing that entails code validation, consistency checks as well as tabulation.
- Enumeration is a very complex operation and oftentimes it happens that accomplished questionnaires have some omissions and implausible or inconsistent entries. Editing is meant to correct these errors.
- For purposes of operational convenience, field editing is usually done. The interviewers are required to review the entries at the end of the end of each interview. Blank items that are applicable to the respondents are verified and filled out. Before being transmitted to the regional office, all questionnaires are edited in the field offices.
- There were general instructions followed in the editing laid in the Processing Manual provided as a guide for the data processors.
Coding, the transformation of information from the questionnaire to machine readable form, is likewise done in the field offices. Machine processing involves all operations that are done with the use of a computer and/or its accessories, that is, from data encoding to tabulation. Coded data are usually in such media as tapes and diskettes. Machine editing is preferred to ensure correctness of encoded information. CSPro 2.5 was used in the data entry and tabulations.Except for sample completeness check and verification of geographic identification that are the responsibility of the Income and Employment Statistics. Division (IESD), some imputations and corrections of entries are done mechanically. For this round, preliminary and final tabulations are done at the Central Office.
Results of the survey can be viewed in http://www.census.gov.ph/data/pressrelease/2007/lf0704tx.html
Division Chief, Income and Employment Statistics Division
This (Census/Survey) conforms to the provisions of confidentiality stated under Section 4 of Commonwealth Act No. 591, which says that the "Data furnished to the Bureau of Census and Statistics (BCS) now known as the National Statistics Office, by an individual, corporation, partnership, institution or business enterprise shall not be used as evidence in any court or in any public office either as evidence against the individual, corporation, association, partnership, institution, or business enterprise from whom such data emanates; nor shall such data or information be divulged to any person except authorized employees of the BCS acting in the performance of their duties; nor shall such data be published except in the form of summaries or statistical tables in which no reference to an individual, corporation, association, partnership, institution or business enterprise shall appear."
Authorization to use this data is granted only to the client or data user and persons within its organization, if applicable. Under no circumstances shall the client reproduce, distribute, sell or lend the entire data or parts thereof to any other data user apart from himself or that of authorized employees in his organization. The NSO shall hold the data user fully responsible for safeguarding the data from any unauthorized access or use.
Before being granted access to the dataset, all users have to formally agree:
1. To make no copies of any files or portions of files to which s/he is granted access except those authorized by the NSO.
2. Not to use any technique in an attempt to learn the identity of any person, establishment, or sampling unit not identified in the dataset.
3. To hold in strictest confidence the identification of any establishment or individual that may be inadvertently revealed in any documents or discussion, or analysis. Such inadvertent identification revealed in her/his analysis will be immediately be reported to the NSO.
Any report, paper or similar articles, whether published or not, emanating from the use of this data shall give appropriate acknowledgement as suggested herein, “(Title of Census/Survey, version number and date), National Statistics Office, Manila, Philippines”, as the source of basic data. The data user or client is encouraged to provide NSO with a copy of such report, paper or article. It is understood that unless expressly allowed by the client, such report, paper or article shall not be used for any purpose other than monitoring.