This is the second round of the Kingdom of Eswatini Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES). The publication was based on the results of the last two rounds of HIES, which were administered in 2000/01 and 2009/10. Both surveys focused on income and expenditure, a previous Poverty Profile (CSO 2003) derived from the HIES of 2000/01 found a high proportion of persons living in poverty. The authors established that 69 percent of the population was living in poverty. The present study updates the poverty figures based on the HIES of 2009/10.
The Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) was a multipurpose survey of households in Swaziland which collected information on different dimensions of the population's living conditions. The data was collected on a countrywide basis including among others; education, health and employment. The survey used the most comprehensive household surveys available in Swaziland and focused on three dimensions of poverty namely; consumption poverty, lack of access to assets/services and human development.
The survey covered an analysis of living conditions from another perspective other than just monetary poverty. It also provided an opportunity to study trends in household well-being over a ten year period and ensure evidence-based public policy decision-making in poverty reduction efforts. The HIES added to the policy debate and discussions in Swaziland on actions taken to reduce poverty so far and various programs being implemented to chart the progress towards the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and to monitor other policy initiatives such as the Poverty Reduction Strategy and Action Plan (PRSAP). The questionnaires used for these two rounds were almost identical, meaning that the results can be directly compared. Each round covered a nationally representative sample of households spread over a twelve-month period.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The 2010 Household Income and Expenditure Survey covered the following topics:
- Household demographic characteristics
- Household income
- Major household expenditure
- Economic activity
- Housing conditions
- Access to credit
- Recent shocks to household welfare
- Daily expenditures
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistical Office
Government of the Kingdom of Eswatini
Government of the Kingdom of Eswatini
United Nations Development Programme
Financial and technical assistance
Accelerated Data Program
The Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) was administered to a representative sample of households. Both rounds of the HIES used in this study were conducted on a nationwide basis. The survey was based on the 2007 population and housing census (PHC) frame.
A stratified multi-stage sample design was used for this survey. At the first stage a total of 375 enumeration areas (EA's) were selected. An exhaustive household listing exercise was carried out to update the lists prepared during the 2007 PHC. A collection of geo-coordinates of households also formed part of the exercise. This was to facilitate location of households during actual data collection. The final sample size was just under 4000 households. At the second stage a fixed number of households were selected by systematic random sampling within each of the selected enumeration areas.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Central Statistical Office. Swaziland Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) 2009 - 2010. Ref. SWZ_2009_HIES_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [url] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Development Data Group
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 02 (October 2014)
- Editing of metadata fields
- Study description added