Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality 2000
Mainland SACMEQ II Project
Socio-Economic/Monitoring Survey [hh/sems]
The origins of the Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) date back to 1991, the year when several Ministries of Education in Eastern and Southern Africa started working closely with UNESCO's International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) on the implementation of integrated educational policy research and training programmes.
In 1995 these Ministries of Education formalized their collaboration by establishing a network that is widely known as SACMEQ. Fifteen Ministries are now members of SACMEQ: Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania (Mainland), Tanzania (Zanzibar), Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
The Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) undertook three large-scale, cross-national studies of the quality of education: SACMEQ I (1995-1999, reading) with seven ministries; SACMEQ II (2000-2004, reading and mathematics) with 14 ministries; and SACMEQ III (2006-2010, reading, mathematics, and HIV and AIDS knowledge) with 15 ministries.
In 1991 the International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) and a number of Ministries of Education in Southern and Eastern Africa began to work together in order to address training and research needs in Education. The focus for this work was on establishing long-term strategies for building the capacity of educational planners to monitor and evaluate the quality of their basic education systems. The first two educational policy research projects undertaken by SACMEQ (widely known as "SACMEQ I" and "SACMEQ II") were designed to provide detailed information that could be used to guide planning decisions aimed at improving the quality of education in primary school systems.
During 1995-1998 seven Ministries of Education participated in the SACMEQ I Project. The SACMEQ II Project commenced in 1998 and the surveys of schools, involving 14 Ministries of Education, took place between 2000 and 2004. The survey was undertaken in schools in Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zanzibar.
Moving from the SACMEQ I Project (covering around 1100 schools and 20,000 pupils) to the SACMEQ II Project (covering around 2500 schools and 45,000 pupils) resulted in a major increase in the scale and complexity of SACMEQ's research and training programmes.
SACMEQ's mission is to:
a) Expand opportunities for educational planners to gain the technical skills required to monitor and evaluate the quality of their education systems; and
b) Generate information that can be used by decision-makers to plan and improve the quality of education.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
v01: Edited data for licensed distribution
Data was collected on pupils' home backgrounds and their school life; classrooms, teaching practices, teachers' working conditions, and teacher housing; information about school head; enrolments, school buildings and facilities, and school management.
basic skills education [6.1]
The survey covered Mainland Tanzania.
The target population for SACMEQ's Initial Project was defined as "all pupils at the Grade 6 level in 1995 who were attending registered government or non-government schools". Grade 6 was chosen because it was the grade level where the basics of reading literacy were expected to have been acquired.
Producers and sponsors
Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality
International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP)
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
Funding the project
Funding the project
Funding the project
Ministries of Education and Culture, Tanzania
Funding the project
The sample designs used in the SACMEQ II Project were selected so as to meet the standards set down by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement. These standards required that sample estimates of important pupil population parameters should have sampling accuracy that was at least equivalent to a simple random sample of 400 pupils (thereby guaranteeing 95 percent confidence limits for sample means of plus or minus one tenth of a pupil standard deviation unit).
Some Constraints on Sample Design
Sample designs in the field of education are usually prepared amid a network of competing constraints. These designs need to adhere to established survey sampling theory and, at the same time, give due recognition to the financial, administrative, and socio-political settings in which they are to be applied. The "best" sample design for a particular project is one that provides levels of sampling accuracy that are acceptable in terms of the main aims of the project, while simultaneously limiting cost, logistic, and procedural demands to manageable levels. The major constraints that were established prior to the preparation of the sample designs for the SACMEQ II Project have been listed below.
Target Population: The target population definitions should focus on Grade 6 pupils attending registered mainstream government or non-government schools. In addition, the defined target population should be constructed by excluding no more than 5 percent of pupils from the desired target population.
Bias Control: The sampling should conform to the accepted rules of scientific probability sampling. That is, the members of the defined target population should have a known and non-zero probability of selection into the sample so that any potential for bias in sample estimates due to variations from "epsem sampling" (equal probability of selection method) may be addressed through the use of appropriate sampling weights (Kish, 1965).
Sampling Errors: The sample estimates for the main criterion variables should conform to the sampling accuracy requirements set down by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (Ross, 1991). That is, the standard error of sampling for the pupil tests should be of a magnitude that is equal to, or smaller than, what would be achieved by employing a simple random sample of 400 pupils (Ross, 1985).
Response Rates: Each SACMEQ country should aim to achieve an overall response rate for pupils of 80 percent. This figure was based on the wish to achieve or exceed a response rate of 90 percent for schools and a response rate of 90 percent for pupils within schools.
Administrative and Financial Costs: The number of schools selected in each country should recognize limitations in the administrative and financial resources available for data collection.
Other Constraints: The number of pupils selected to participate in the data collection in each selected school should be set at a level that will maximize validity of the within-school data collection for the pupil reading and mathematics tests.
The Specification of the Target Population
For Tanzania the desired target population was all pupils enrolled in Standard 6 in the ninth month of the school year (i.e., in the first week of December 2000). A decision was made to exclude pupils in special schools and those in schools which had fewer than 20 Standard 6 pupils which led to the establishment of the defined target population.
Tanzania there were 10,786 schools having 529,296 Standard 6 pupils. The excluded population was 17,942 pupils from 1,270 schools which was 3.3 percent of all pupils. The defined population from which a sample had to be drawn consisted of 511,354 pupils from 9,516 schools.
Note: Detailed descriptions of the sample design, sample selection, and sample evaluation procedures have been presented in the "Tanzania Working Report".
Response rates for pupils and schools respectively were 77% and 98%.
The calculation of sampling weights "raising factors" was conducted after all files had been cleaned and merged. Sampling weights were used to adjust for missing data and for variations in probabilities of selection that arose from the application of stratified multi-stage sample designs. There were also certain country-specific aspects of the sampling procedures, and these had to be reflected in the calculation of sampling weights.
Two forms of sampling weights were prepared for the SACMEQ II Project. The first sampling weight (RF2) was the inverse of the probability of selecting a pupil into the sample. These "raising factors" were equal to the number of pupils in the defined target population that were "represented by a single pupil" in the sample. The second sampling weight (pweight2) was obtained by multiplying the raising factors by a constant so that the sum of the sampling weights was equal to the achieved sample size.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
The main data collection took place during the first week of December 2000. The local authorities and schools were notified about the data collection several weeks in advance. The data collection training manual used by the data collectors contained detailed instructions concerning the random selection of 20 sample pupils and all necessary steps that data collectors had to follow when at a school, packaging and returning the instruments to the 5 centres. A team of 15 data collectors (who had participated in the pilot study) was trained at the Ministry head office in Dar es Salaam) in September 2000. These, in turn, trained 92 data collectors nationwide in 5 centres namely: Kibaha, Dodoma, Moshi, Mbeya, Mwanza to ensure uniformity in data collection throughout the country. The training of 92 data collectors included a simulated data collection within the groups. The experiences gathered during these exercises were shared and discussed among trainees during a later meeting so that all data collectors understood the procedures to be completed within schools.
At the school, they ensured a testing room with 20 well-placed sitting and writing places was available and that the data were collected on two consecutive days. Data collectors with the collaboration of the head teacher ensured that a well ventilated and light room with enough sitting and writing places for 20 pupils, class registers were available and that the selected the learners were present.
On the first day, data collectors administered the pupil questionnaire, reading test, school head questionnaire, teacher questionnaire and teacher reading test. During the evening of the first day data collectors' checked all the information collected and then, where necessary, obtained any missing or incomplete information on the second day.
The data collection for SACMEQ’s Initial Project took place in October 1995 and involved the administration of questionnaires to pupils, teachers, and school heads.
The pupil questionnaire contained questions about the pupils’ home backgrounds and their school life; the teacher questionnaire asked about classrooms, teaching practices, working conditions, and teacher housing; and the school head questionnaire collected information about teachers, enrolments, buildings, facilities, and management. A reading literacy test was also given to the pupils. The test was based on items that were selected after a trial-testing programme had been completed.
Data Entry and Data Cleaning
Six persons from the National Examination Council of Tanzania (NECTA) and MOEC were appointed and trained in the use of WINDEM, a special data entry package to be used in SACMEQ. NECTA and MOEC computers were used for Data entry and data cleaning. The process was facilitated by written instructions and follow- up support from IIEP staff in the basic steps mainly via the internet and permitted the NRCs to:
(i) identify major errors in the sequence of identification numbers,
(ii) cross-check identification numbers across files (for example, to ensure that all pupils were linked with their own reading and mathematics teachers),
(iii) ensure that all schools listed on the original sampling frame also had valid data collection instruments and vice-versa,
(iv) check for "wild codes" that occurred when some variables had values that fell outside pre-specified reasonable limits, and validate that variables used as linkage devices in later file merges were available and accurate.
The volume of information required to be entered and cleaned in the code sheets was immense despite the user friendliness of the software thus perseverance and experience of keyboard operation was required. The following can help one imagine the volume of work entered. Data collection instruments contained the follows information to be coded: school form: 58; pupil name form: 51; pupil questionnaire: 150; pupil reading test: 85; pupil mathematics test: 65; teacher questionnaire: 587; teacher reading test: 51; teacher mathematics test: 43; and school head questionnaire: 319. All the data entered were sent to the IIEP for checking in order to ensure that there were no errors such as inconsistencies or wild values. The IIEP then sent back the data to Tanzania for cleaning, after which the Ministry sent it back to IIEP for further checks. This process continued until the data was absolutely clean, and it took 21 months to complete (March 2001and November 2002).
The merging process required the construction of a single data file for each school system in which pupils were the units of analysis. This was achieved by "disaggregating" the teacher and school head data over the pupil data. That is, each record of the final data file for consisted of the following four components: (a) the questionnaire and test data for an individual pupil, (b) the questionnaire and test data for his/her mathematics and reading teacher, (c) the questionnaire data for his/her school head, and (d) school and pupil "tracking forms" that were required for data cleaning purposes.
The merged file enabled linkages to be made among pupils, teachers, and school heads at the "between-pupil" level of analysis. To illustrate, with the merged file it was possible to examine questions of the following kind: "What are the average reading and mathematics test scores (based on information taken from the pupil tests) for groups of pupils who attend urban or rural schools (based on information taken from the school head questionnaire), and who are taught by male or female teachers (based on information taken from the teacher questionnaire)?"
Analysing the Data
The data analyses for the SACMEQ II Project were very clearly defined because they were focussed specifically on generating results that could be used to "fill in the blank entries" in the dummy tables described above. The SPSS software system was first used to construct new variables (often referred to as "indices") or to recode existing variables. For example, an index of "socioeconomic level" was constructed by combining recoded variables that described the educational level of the pupils' parents, the materials used in the construction of pupils' homes, and the number of possessions in pupils' homes. Second, the IIEP's specialized data analysis software, IIEPJACK, was used to "fill" the Dummy Tables with appropriate statistics along with their correct measures of sampling error.
Estimates of Sampling Error
The sample designs employed in the SACMEQ Projects departed markedly from the usual "textbook model" of simple random sampling. This departure demanded that special steps be taken in order to calculate "sampling errors" (that is, measures of the stability of sample estimates of population characteristics).
Director- Southern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ)
International Institute for Educational Planning (UNESCO)
Director- Southern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality
International Institute for Educational Planning - UNESCO
International Institute for Educational Planning
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR USE OF THE SACMEQ DATA ARCHIVE
The Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality (SACMEQ) Co-ordinating Centre (SCC <http://www.sacmeq.org/_legal/accept_new?destination=training-workshops>) has produced a data archive containing all information collected for SACMEQ's first three educational policy research projects (SACMEQ I, SACMEQ II, and SACMEQ III). This archive is now available online on the SACMEQ website so as to give bona fide researchers and students online access to SACMEQ data and documents.
The SACMEQ data sets have been developed at great cost and with the application of stringent quality controls. It is being made available to eligible users because it has a great potential to contribute to educational policy development beyond what has already been achieved in this respect through the reports written by the National Research Co-ordinators (NRC <http://www.sacmeq.org/_legal/accept_new?destination=training-workshops>s) and Deputy National Research Coordinators (NRC <http://www.sacmeq.org/_legal/accept_new?destination=training-workshops>s). It is expected that many researchers and students will wish to use the Data Archive for research, publications, and/or training purposes.
The Terms and Conditions serve two purposes. Firstly, they provide interested applicants with guidelines on how to access this valuable information resource. Secondly, they are intended to safeguard against the danger of users being unaware of the complexities of the data collection process and consequently arriving at misinterpretations that could lead to incorrect conclusions.
2.0 How can the user gain such access?
In order to obtain SACMEQ Data Archive for any of the SACMEQ school systems, the applicant should follow these steps:
2.1 Read and Agree to these "Terms and Conditions for the Use of the SACMEQ Data Archive."
2.2 Complete an online application form.
3.0 What rules govern the use of the SACMEQ data archive?
3.1 The Data Archive is the outcome of expensive and time-consuming activities of the staff of the represented Ministries of Education spread over many years. For this reason, the SACMEQ Ministries of Education described in the Data Archive should:
3.1.1 be notified by the SACMEQ SCC <http://www.sacmeq.org/_legal/accept_new?destination=training-workshops> of any request for data;
3.1.2 have an opportunity to review reports based on the data archive so as to correct any gross errors before they are published; and
3.1.3 satisfy themselves that the data have been used in such a manner that they contribute positively to the development of relevant education policies in relevant SACMEQ member countries.
3.2 It is the National Research Coordinators (NRC <http://www.sacmeq.org/_legal/accept_new?destination=training-workshops>s) and Deputy National Research
Coordinators (DNRCs) who have spearheaded the collection and compilation of SACMEQ data. In acknowledgment of their efforts, the applicant(s) will be required to invite the relevant country's National Research Coordinator to participate in the study associated with the use of the data. Where an individual other than the NRC <http://www.sacmeq.org/_legal/accept_new?destination=training-workshops> or DNRC is co-opted, the relevant NRC <http://www.sacmeq.org/_legal/accept_new?destination=training-workshops> and DNRC shall be given the first right of refusal.
3.3 This provision does not apply in situations where the SACMEQ Data Archive is used purely for purposes of individual academic research by a student, and where the results are not intended for publication.
3.4 All relevant NRC <http://www.sacmeq.org/_legal/accept_new?destination=training-workshops>s and DNRCs will be informed by the SCC <http://www.sacmeq.org/_legal/accept_new?destination=training-workshops> about the recipients of the Data Archive.
3.5 SACMEQ provides the SACMEQ Data Archive to applicants on the basis of the intended use stated in the application. The applicant, therefore, should not use the data for any purpose other than the one stated in the application. Should the applicant(s) wish to use the data for a purpose other than that stated in the agreement, then he/she/they must first secure the written approval of SACMEQ before he/she/they proceed to do so.
3.6 SACMEQ data are provided for the sole and exclusive use of the applicant specified in the agreement. The successful applicant should, therefore, not share the SACMEQ Data Archive with, or pass it on to, any other unauthorized person(s).
3.7 The authorized user shall take responsibility for the safe custody of the SACMEQ Data Archive and also take reasonable steps to ensure that no unauthorized persons gain access to it.
3.8 The authorized user shall give due credit to SACMEQ for providing the Data Archive by providing written acknowledgement of this in any publication emanating from their use.
3.9 As the Data Archive remains the property of the SACMEQ, no other person(s), including the successful applicants or the member Ministry, shall re-distribute or offer for sale the SACMEQ Data Archive.
3.10 All reports based on the SACMEQ Data Archive have to secure the written approval of the SCC <http://www.sacmeq.org/_legal/accept_new?destination=training-workshops> prior to the publication in order to confirm compliance to our terms and conditions, and also to ensure that there is no misunderstanding or misinterpretation of the data.
3.11 Once authorization has been granted to access the archive, you will see a link on the website which will take you to the Data Archive.
3.12 All relevant NRC <http://www.sacmeq.org/_legal/accept_new?destination=training-workshops>s will be informed by the SCC <http://www.sacmeq.org/_legal/accept_new?destination=training-workshops> about the recipients of the SACMEQ Data Archive.
3.13 Full acknowledgement of the source of the data (including reference to the SACMEQ Data Archive) must be given whenever the data are used.
3.14 A copy of any published article or report based on the SACMEQ Data Archive must be provided free of charge to (a) the SACMEQ Co-ordinating Centre, and (b) the Ministry(ies) of Education from whose data the report has been generated.
Southern and Eastern Africa Consortium for Monitoring Educational Quality. SACMEQ II Project 2000 [dataset]. Version 4. Harare: SACMEQ [producer], 2004. Paris: International Institute for Educational Planning, UNESCO [distributor], 2010.
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.