The CFSVA process generates a document that describes the food security status of various segments of a population over various parts of a country or region, analyses the underlying causes of vulnerability, and recommends appropriate interventions to deal with the problems. CFSVAs are undertaken in all crisis-prone food-insecure countries. The shelf life of CFSVAs is determined by the indicators being collected and reported. In most situations, CFSVA findings are valid for three to five years, unless there are drastic food security changes in the meantime.
WFP Madagascar, with support from the Vulnerability Analysis and Mapping (VAM) staff from WFP Johannesburg, Maputo, and Rome designed and implemented a Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis (CFSVA) in rural Madagascar. The primary objective of the household survey was to obtain a better understanding of food insecurity and vulnerability among rural households in a non emergency setting at sub-regional levels throughout the country. The findings serve as pre-crisis baseline information against which to measure the effects of a future shock such as a cyclone or drought. The findings serve as pre-crisis baseline information against which to measure the effects of a future shock such as a cyclone or drought. In particular, the following questions must be answered:
• Who are the hungry poor and vulnerable?
• Where do they live?
• What are the underlying causes of food insecurity and vulnerability?
• How can food aid make a difference?
In designing the survey, both household food security and the livelihoods approaches were applied. With respect to food security, availability, access and utilization of food were analyzed. In regard of livelihoods and risk management, the analysis covered the interdependent aspects of the availability and diversity of assets, sources of income, vulnerability and exposure to natural, social, political and health risks and the related coping strategies used to manage shocks.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
HOUSEHOLD: Demography, housing and amenities, household and animal assets, income sources & contribution, agriculture, expenditures; food consumption based on 7-day food frequency, household exposure to risks & shocks, coping strategies, current prices of staple foods, and their originand also women and child health and nutrition
ANTHROPOMETRIC: Height and weight/length were measured for children, antenatal care, birth size, feeding practices, and recent illness were also collected.
COMMUNITY: Community demography & migration, income generating activities and their changes, roads, electricity and credit, agricultural activities, livestock and pasture, market availability and access, access to education and enrolment, community groups, access and utilization of health care, main health problems, external assistance and community priorities for development.
Market: Current prices of staple foods, and their origin.
Rural areas only
Within a household, only one woman aged 15-49 was interviewed and measured for the woman’s module. If there were children 0-59 months of age, information on their health and nutrition was collected and they were weighed and measured.
Producers and sponsors
World Food Programme, Madagascar
Humanitarian Aid Department of the European Commission
Funding the study
A list of all communities and their populations for each for each district (by cluster) was provided by WFP Madagascar. Communities not included in the sampling frame were urban towns and cities or rural town with more than 1500 inhabitants. A two-stage cluster sampling was applied; the first stage was to draw a sample of 20-30 communities per district cluster, depending on the total population. The number of communities chosen within a district was determined by the district’s contribution to the total rural population of the district cluster. Therefore 1 to 8 communities were sampled for any given district for a total of 233 communities. Households were selected according to random sampling methods: from a list, if such a list was made available by the chef de village, or using interval sampling, starting at different points within a village and selecting every nth household.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Training of enumerators on the methodology and scope of the CFSVA took place during the third week of August with support from WFP Regional staff. Questionnaires were field tested at the end of the training and possible sources of misunderstanding were eliminated for the final version.
Enumerators totaling 19 females and 26 males were divided into 15 gender-balanced groups with a head of team assigned to each. During the data collection, the VAM Unit of the Country Office (one national and one international VAM Officer) and two external national consultants supervised the 15 teams.
The household questionnaire included modules on household demography, housing and amenities, household and animal assets, income sources & contribution, agriculture, expenditures; food consumption based on 7-day food frequency, household exposure to risks & shocks, coping strategies, and also women and child health and nutrition.
For the anthropometric measurements one woman of reproductive age (15-49) age and all or her children between 0 to 59 months in the sampled households were measured. For child anthropometry, height and weight/length were measured for children. This information was used to calculate nutritional indices (z-scores) and then to classify children as being stunted, wasted and/or underweight. Information on antenatal care, birth size, feeding practices, and recent illness were also collected.
The community questionnaire was designed to collect quantitative and qualitative information on community demography & migration, income generating activities and their changes, roads, electricity and credit, agricultural activities, livestock and pasture, market availability and access, access to education and enrolment, community groups, access and utilization of health care, main health problems, external assistance and community priorities for development.
The market questionnaire included the current prices of staple foods, and their origin. A minimum of two main markets per district were surveyed.
The household and community questionnaire was adapted from a standard VAM questionnaire translated into French and then translated into Malagasy to avoid misinterpretation. For the actual data collection all questionnaires were distributed in a bilingual paper copy.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
World Food Programme. Madagascar Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis 2005. Ref. MDG_2005_CFSVA_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from http://nada.vam.wfp.org/index.php/catalog on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
World Bank, Development Data Group
The World Bank
Reviewed the DDI
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 02 (February 2014). Edited version, the initial version (Version 01 - August 2012, DDI-MDG-WFP-CFSVA-2005-v1.0) DDI was done by Souleika Abdillahi (WFP).
Following DDI elements are edited, DDI ID, and Study ID. External resources (questionnaires and report) are attached to the DDI.