The Child Labour Survey (CLS) implemented by the DoS is the first survey to provide data on the status of child labour in Jordan. The survey was carried out by the DoS, in cooperation with the International Labour Office (ILO), within the framework of a statistical information program aimed at establishing a child-labour database. Preparations for the CLS were conducted in consultation with other national and international institutions concerned with the child labour issue, including the Ministry of Labour, the Ministry of Education, UNICEF and UNESCO.
The main objectives of the CLS were to obtain detailed data on and establish links between child labour and various demographic and socio-economic variables. The survey was designed to enable a comparison of the living standards of households with children in employment to those of households in Jordan in general and to facilitate international comparisons related to statistical data on child labour.
The DoS aims to use the data obtained from the CLS to create a data base containing quantitative and qualitative information on child labour that is accessible to all institutions concerned with the phenomenon. In this way, the survey aims to support planning and policymaking, including the development, monitoring and evaluation of policies and programs aimed at the elimination of child labour.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- Children age 5-17 years
The survey covered the following topics:
- Household Composition and Characteristics
- Educational Attainment (age 5 and above)
- Current Economic Activity Status (age 5 and above)
- Usual Employment Status (age 5 and above)
- Unpaid Household Services (‘Chores’) (age 5-17)
- Perceptions/Observations of Parents/Guardians about Children in Employment
- Housing and Household Characteristics
- Household Socio-Economic Status
- Educational Attainment
- Current Economic Activity Status
- Health and Safety Issues for Children in Employment
- Unpaid Household Services (‘Chores’)
Producers and sponsors
Department of Statistics (DoS)
Hashimite Kingdom of Jordan
International Labour Organization
Ministry of Labor, Hashimite Kingdom of Jordan
Funding the study
International Labour Organization
Funding the study
The CLS used a two-stage stratified cluster sampling design. The 2004 Population and Housing Census was used as the sampling frame. The frame excludes the largely nomadic population living in remote areas as well as the institutional population (hotels, hospitals, work camps, prisons, etc.).
The sample size was limited due to budget constraints. A sample size of approximately 12,000 households was determined as the minimum sample size necessary to provide estimates for urban/rural populations and for the Amman Governorate. Based on an anticipated non-response rate of 10 percent, this required a sample size of at least 13,500 households. The selection of households in proportion to cluster size ultimately resulted in a total sample size of 15,176 households.
Sample Selection and Allocation
Selection was performed in two stages. In the first stage, PSUs were selected using probability proportional-to-PSU size. A listing study was then conducted to update the list of households in the selected PSUs. In the second stage, households were selected from each PSU using probability-inversely-proportional-to-PSU size.
Prior to the selection of PSUs, nested stratification was applied so that within each stratum, PSUs were sorted by administrative hierarchy and socio-economic indicators. The following information was used to identify areas in which working children are concentrated:
1. Number of working children aged 15-17 (2004 Population and Housing Census),
2. Proportion of population aged 5-17 (2004 Population and Housing Census),
3. Enrolment rate among children aged 5-17 (2004 Population and Housing Census),
4. Drop-out rate (2006 Ministry of Education Data),
5. Poverty rate (2002 Expenditure and Income Survey).
Based on this information, the frame was divided into 14 strata.
All sample households were visited, with three attempts made to contact each household. In total, 14,091 households (92.9%) were interviewed successfully. In some cases, sample households were not interviewed because they were found to be ineligible. Discounting those dwellings that were vacant or could not be found, the survey had a response rate of 98.0 percent.
Design weights, non-response rates and calibration were used to calculate the final weights. Design weights were calculated inversely proportional to the overall selection probability according to the following formula:
wi = (sum of (ni)/sum of (ni/pi)) * 1/pi
To reduce the effects of different non-response rates in each strata, non-response weights were calculated at the household level for each strata inversely proportional to the response rate Rj within the strata using the following formula:
Rj= No of completed HHs in strata j/No of selected HHs in strata j
In order to ensure the representativeness of the estimates, the results were calibrated using the 2007 Population projections. In addition, the overall inflation factor was calculated by dividing the projected population by the weighted sample population.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Field inspector was responsible for administering all field operations and supervisors in a specific area. This involved assigning work areas and providing supplies, including questionnaires, to supervisors; monitoring the progress of fieldwork in accordance with the work plan; preparing daily progress reports; checking a sample of completed questionnaires for data quality; forwarding completed questionnaires and other survey documents to the central survey office; and acting as a liaison with the central survey administration to report on the progress and problems encountered in the field.
In addition to the above procedures, survey administrative staff paid frequent visits to field staff in various governorates to oversee their performance and progress and assist in resolving any difficulties.
Data Collection Notes
Fieldwork was initiated on 2 December 2007 and completed on 6 January 2008, as scheduled. Fieldwork was organized hierarchically into teams of interviewers, supervisors and inspectors, and field procedures designed so as to ensure that high-quality data was obtained.
Interviewers were assigned tasks by supervisors, who were provided with maps and sketches to help them familiarize themselves with their work areas. After entering identifying information from the survey frame into the questionnaire forms, supervisors were responsible for assigning interviewers daily interviewing tasks so as to maximize team productivity. Supervisors were also expected to continuously monitor their assigned areas to oversee work progress; check questionnaires, attend interviews and solve any problems that emerge in the field; provide inspectors with completed daily and weekly progress report forms; and deliver completed questionnaire forms to the inspectors.
Department of Statistics
Hashimite Kingdom of Jordan
The CLS questionnaire was based on a model questionnaire developed by ILO-SIMPOC, which was adapted by DoS staff to meet the specific circumstances in Jordan. In designing the questionnaire, special care was taken to facilitate on-line data entry and verification of survey data. The questionnaire was then translated into Arabic, piloted and revised based on this experience.
The questionnaire consists of a cover page that identifies the household, followed by three main parts: 1) an Adult Questionnaire that collects information on all household members; 2) a Household Characteristics Questionnaire that collects information related to housing characteristics and the socio-economic status of the household; and 3) a Child Questionnaire that collects information on all children in the household aged 5-17.
The adult questionnaire was addressed to the most knowledgeable member of the household and collected information on household composition, household members’ schooling and employment status, unpaid household services carried out by children and the perceptions of parents/guardians regarding children’s employment.
The Household Characteristics Questionnaire was also addressed to the most knowledgeable household member and collected information on housing characteristics, ownership of durable goods and socio-economic status.
The Child Questionnaire was addressed to children between the ages of 5-17 and aimed to collect information on children’s school, employment and health outcomes from children’s own perspectives.
Data processing activities overlapped with fieldwork, beginning on 20 January 2008 and concluding on 10 March 2008.
In order to facilitate processing, questionnaires were ordered, labelled and stored in a special archive and were tracked throughout the course of data processing activities. After field-editing, completed questionnaires were batched and sent to the central administrative office for further editing, including completeness and consistency checking. Coding and revisions were performed by a special team of data processors under the direct supervision of the survey administration staff in order to minimize errors prior to the start of electronic data processing activities.
In order to maximize efficiency, processing teams were continuously regrouped to improve the flow of questionnaires between office and electronic data processing stages, and a liaison officer was assigned to record the flow of edited and coded questionnaires between divisions. Data keyers received training on data-entry rules and procedures using pre-designed and installed software programs that enabled prompt mechanical editing of incomplete/invalid data. Consistency checks were also performed routinely throughout the data entry process. After obtaining an error-free data set, cross-tables were prepared and compared with internal and external data sources. Once data verification was completed, findings were tabulated using preprepared dummy tables.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.