The 2007 Cambodia Socio-Economic Survey (CSES) is the sixth Cambodia Socio Economic Survey conducted by National Institute of Statistics.
The Cambodia Socio-Economic Survey (CSES) has been conducted by the National Institute of Statistics (NIS) in 1993/94, 1996, 1997, 1999 and 2004. Since 2007 NIS conducts the CSES annually.The CSES is a household survey covering many areas relating to poverty and living conditions. Questions are asked for the household and for the household members.
The CSES is a sample survey and the sample used in 2007 is a subsample of the sample used in 2004.
In the 2004 survey the diary method for collecting data about household expenditure/consumption and household income was introduced. As the recall method has been used in the previous rounds it was decided to include also the recall modules. Both methods are retained in the annual CSES.
The following main areas have been surveyed in the previous survey rounds and in the annual CSES as well:
1. Level and structure of household expenditure/consumption, including poverty
2. Household production and cash income-earning activities by the labour force
3. Education and literacy
4. Health and access to medical care
5. Housing and amenities
6. Family and social relations, including gender and vulnerability issues.
In CSES 2007 some changes have been introduced in the household questionnaire.
The main objective of the survey is to collect statistical information about living conditions of the Cambodian population and the extent of poverty. The survey can be used for identifying problems and making decisions based on statistical data.
The 2007 Cambodia Socio-Economic Survey covered the following topics:
- Basic Household Information
- Food Consumption during the Last 7 Days
- Education and Literacy
- Information on Migration
- Household Economic Activities
- Household Liabilities
- Household Income from Other Sources
- Construction Activities in the Past 12 Months
- Durable Goods
- Child Care
- Fertility and Child Care
- Health Check of Children
- Current Economic Activity
- Summary of Presence in the Household
- Household Expenditure and Consumption
- Household Income and Receipts
- Demographic Information
- Economy and Infrastructure
- Rainfall and Natural Disasters
- Retail Prices
- Employment and Wages
- Access to Common Property Resources during the Last 5 Years
- Sales Prices of Agricultural Land in the Village
- Recruitment of Children for Work outside the Village
Producers and sponsors
National Institute of Statistics
Ministry of Planning
Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
The sampling design in the CSES survey is a three-stage design. In stage one a sample of villages is selected, in stage two an Enumeration Area (EA) is selected from each village selected in stage one, and in stage three a sample of households is selected from each EA selected in stage two. The sampling designs used in the three stages were:
Stage 1: A stratified systematic (systematic sampling with probabilities proportional to size ) sample of villages was selected. Strata were defined by provinces and the urban/rural classification of villages. The size measure used in the systematic pps sampling was the number of households in the village according to the population census 1998.
Stage 2. One EA was selected by Simple Random Sampling (SRS), in each village selected in stage 1.
Stage 3. In each selected EA a sample of households was selected by systematic sampling.
The design described above was used for the CSES 2004 survey.7 In 2007, a subsample of the villages, or EAs, in the 2004 sample was selected by SRS. The villages and EAs surveyed in 2007 were thus included in the sample in both years. In each selected EA a sample of households was selected by systematic sampling. The selected households in 2007 are not necessarily the same as those included in the sample in 2004.
The selection of households in stage three was done in field by first listing the households in the selected EA, and then selecting a systematic sample of households. Selected households were observed during one calendar month. The allocation of the households over the months in 2007 was done so that each village in the 2007 sample was observed in the same calendar month as in 2004.
The sample size in 2007 was 360 villages or 3,600 households, compared to the sample for the 2004 survey of 720 villages or 12,000 households.
Some provinces were excluded, due to cost and other reasons, in the sample for 2007. The estimates are however, adjusted for the under coverage error caused by excluding those provinces.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
The fieldwork started in October 2006 and finished in the end of December 2007. The results in this report are based on data from the calendar year 2007, i.e. only 12 of the 15 survey months are included in the estimation.
Supervisors and enumerators were recruited by NIS and trained for the field work. The training took place at NIS in Phnom Penh. A comprehensive field manual was used during the training and the field work.
Each fieldwork team consisted of one supervisor and three enumerators. For each selected village one enumerator was assigned as responsible and carried out interviews of ten households in the village.
Altogether 30 enumerators and 10 supervisors, divided into 10 teams carried out the fieldwork at the same time. Two groups of teams were formed and alternated monthly so that each interviewer and supervisor worked in the field every second month.
For a given month the team arrived in the village 2-3 days before the first day of the month for preparatory tasks like discussing with village authorities, filling in the Household listing form and sampled the households to be interviewed.
The supervisor was the leader of the team and was responsible for the coordination of the interviews, collaboration with local authorities, and checking of the questionnaires during the interview month. If errors were found in the responses the enumerator was required to re-interview. The supervisor was also responsible for the village questionnaire and the interview of the village leader or representative of the village leader.
Any survey of the CSES dimensions needs a comprehensive system of quality management and monitoring. The CSES management group within NIS therefore is using a careful monitoring scheme. The monitoring team included four NIS staff including top ranked NIS officers. The supervision took place during the last two weeks of the interview month.
Before going to the villages the teams were briefed and introduced to adjustments of the interviewing procedure that had to be made as a result of monitoring activities and feed-back from the data processing.
Four different questionnaires or forms were used in the CSES 2007:
1. Household listing form
The listing of households was used for sampling households, see section 4.3.
2. Village questionnaire
The village questionnaire was responded by the village leader or a representative of the village leader. The questions are about economy and infrastructure, crop production, health, education, retail prices, rental and sales prices of land etc.
3. Household questionnaire
The household questionnaire was responded by the head of the household, spouse of the head of the household or of another adult household member.
The household questionnaire includes questions about housing conditions, crop production and other agricultural activities, liabilities, durable goods, construction activities and income from other sources than economic activity.
The household questionnaire also includes questions for each household member about education and literacy, migration, current economic activity and employment, health, smoking, HIV/AIDS awareness, and victimization. Some of these questions were responded by the head of household/spouse and some were responded by each household member.
The questions in the first part of the household questionnaire are posed during the initial visit to the household. This part includes questions about e.g. the household member's age, sex, marital status, relation to head of household, and questions about household expenditure/consumption of food and non-food items.
During a survey month different questions have been asked different weeks according to the following:
• Week 1. Questions about education, migration, and housing
• Week 2. Questions about economic activity, agricultural and non-agricultural business, household liabilities and other incomes.
• Week 3. Questions about construction, durable goods, and child health
• Week 4. Questions about current economic activities, health and victimization
4. Diary sheet
The diary sheet on daily household expenditure, including value of own production, and income have been filled in during the entire month.
The data processing was done at NIS in Phnom Penh using the SQL data management system that verifies the data entry operation. A team of data editors, data coders and data entry staff was formed. The data editors were checking the questionnaires before the data entry and also took care of errors to ensure that entered data were consistent with the collected data in the questionnaires or diaries. Before the data entry the coders also put relevant codes in the questionnaire and diary.
The Statistics Law Article 22 specifies matters of confidentiality. It explicitly says that all staff working with statistics within the Government of Cambodia "shall ensure confidentiality of all individual information obtained from respondents, except under special circumstances with the consent of the Minister of Planning. The information collected under this Law is to be used only for statistical purposes."
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National Institute of Statistics (NIS). Cambodia Socio-Economic Survey (CSES) 2007. Dataset downloaded from [website/source] on [date].
National Institute of Statistics
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