The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS4) 2010 was conducted as part of the fourth global round of MICS surveys. The first MICS survey was carried out in 1996, another similar or even more comprehensive survey was conducted in May/June 2000 and a third one was conducted in December/January, 2005/2006.These studies were aimed at monitoring progress made by The Gambia towards the attainment of the mid-decade and end-decade goals set during the above-mentioned summit.
The Gambia Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2010 is a nationally representative survey of households, children and women. The main objectives of the survey was to provide up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women in The Gambia. Another objective was to furnish data needed for monitoring progress towards the goals established at the World Summit for Children and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as a basis for future action. The findings of this survey would also be utilized by government and development partners in planning and monitoring program implementation.
The module development for the survey captured data on households characteristics, education, water and sanitation, insecticides treated nets, indoor residual spraying, salt iodization, handwashing, birth registration, early childhood development, Breastfeeding, care of illness, malaria, immunization, anthropometry, child mortality, desire for last birth, illness symptoms, maternal and newborn health, rehydration solutions, contraception, unmet need, female genital mutilation, attitudes toward domestic violence, marriage/ union, sexual behavior, and HIV/AIDS. The survey was conducted through inter-agency collaboration with The Gambia Bureau of Statistics (GBoS), acting as the lead agency.
The Gambia's Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2010 has the following primary objectives:
1. To provide up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women in The Gambia.
2. To furnish data needed for monitoring progress towards the goals established in the Millennium Declaration, the goals of A World Fit for Children (WFFC) and other internationally agreed upon goals as a basis for future action.
3. To contribute to the improvement of data and monitoring systems in The Gambia and to strengthen technical expertise in the design, implementation and analysis of such systems.
4. To generate data on the situation of children and women, including the identification of vulnerable groups and of disparities, to inform policies and interventions.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- Households (defined as a group of persons who usually live and eat together)
- Women aged 15-49
- Children aged 0-4
The scope of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey includes:
- Household listing
- Water and sanitation
- Security of tenure/durability of housing
- Malaria-related questions
- Child labor
- Child discipline
- Salt iodization
- Child mortality
- Tetanus toxoid (TT)
- Maternal and newborn health
- Female genital mutilation/cutting
- Attitudes toward domestic violence
- Sexual behavior
- HIV knowledge
UNDER-FIVE CHILD QUESTIONNAIRE
- Birth registration and early learning
- Child development
- Vitamin A
- Care of illness
The survey covered all de jure household members (usual residents), all women aged 15-49 years living in the household, and all children aged 0-4 years (under age 5) living in the household.
Producers and sponsors
Gambia Bureau of Statistics
Government of The Gambia
Ministry of Health and Social Welfare
Ministry of Basic and Secondary Education
Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs
Gambia Family Planning Association
United Nations Children's Fund
Financial and technical support
The sample for The Gambia Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS4) was designed to provide estimates on a large number of indicators on the situation of children and women at the national level, for urban and rural areas, and for the eight Local Government Areas (LGAs): Banjul, Kanifing, Brikama, Mansakonko, Kerewan, Kuntaur, Janjanbureh and Basse. Other than Banjul and Kanifing which are entirely urban settlements, urban and rural areas within each LGA were identified as the main sampling domains and the sample was selected in two stages. Within each LGA, at least 44 and at most 60 census enumeration areas, (EA's) or clusters were selected systematically with Probability Proportional to Size (PPS).
Deviations from the Sample Design
No major deviations from the original sample design were made. All sample enumeration areas were accessed and successfully interviewed with good response rates.
Of the 7,800 households selected for the sample survey, 7,799 households were found to be occupied. Of these 7,791 were successfully interviewed for a household response rate of 99.9 percent. In the interviewed households, the survey identified 15,138 women (age 15-49 years). Of these 14,685 were successfully interviewed, resulting to a response rate of 97.0 percent within interviewed households. In addition 11,807 children under age five were listed. Questionnaires were completed for 11,637 of these children, which corresponds to a response rate of 98.6 percent within interviewed households.
The Gambia MICS4 2010 sample is not self-weighting. A minimum of 12 cases were observed among the expected number of women and under-five children in households distributed along domains by a self-weighting design obtained through proportional allocation, or more precisely implicit stratification.
There was therefore the need to reallocate the sample sizes taking into account a minimum of 50 cases and the highest overall non-response rate of 4.2 percent which was revealed by the 2006 MICS. The minimum number of households, for the target population with 12 cases, to show at least 50 cases of women aged 45 - 49 years is 1,302. This number is not suitable because equal allocation will result in a sample size which is greater than the overall sample size of 7,800 households. Gambia Bureau of Statistics therefore tried the third lowest number of cases of 19 under-five's who fall in the age group less than 6 months old. Here the minimum number of households required to obtain an expected number of respondents greater than 50 (allowing for non-response) is 823.
The formula used to obtain the expected number of respondents greater than 50 (allowing for non-response) is:
x = hh1 50(1.042)
Where x is the minimum number of households required to obtain an expected number of respondents greater than 50 (allowing for non-response). hh1 is the number of households allocated through the original self-weighting design in the domain of the target group bearing the minimum number of cases.
1,042 is the factor that compensates for the maximum overall non-response in a previous survey, in this case MICS 2006. E1 is the minimum number of cases, each domain was first allocated with 823 households. This gives 6,584 households allocated in this way and the balance 1,216 households were allocated proportional to the 2003 census households. In addition to these procedures, by rounding off households to the nearest multiple of 20 households, the sample take per cluster, the distribution of households in Table 1 (column 8) below was therefore obtained.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
The field practice interviews were observed by the trainers to ensure that interviewers understood what they are instructed to do during the data collection. Seven days was allocated for the pre-testing of the questionnaires and the last day of the training was used to review the questionnaires completed during the pre-test. Individual problems in completing the questionnaires were identified and remedies found.
The data were collected by seven teams; each team was comprised of five interviewers, one editor, one measurer, a supervisor and a driver. Fieldwork began in April 2010 and was completed in August 2010.
Gambia Bureau of Statistics
The questionnaires are based on the MICS4 Model Questionnaire III. Given that the MICS4 model questionnaires were in an English version, the questionnaires were not translated into the local languages for the training part. The training program for staff conducting or supervising the interviews included detailed discussions of the contents of the questionnaires, how to complete the questionnaires, and interviewing techniques.
In addition to taking the trainees through the questionnaires in English, the questions were also verbally translated into the three main local languages of The Gambia (Wollof, Mandinka and Fula). A participatory approach was adopted during these translation sessions to ensure that all participants had common understanding of the translation of all the questions. The questionnaires were pre-tested in few selected EAs in the Greater Banjul in April, 2010. Based on the results of the pre-test, modifications were made to the wording and translation of the questionnaires.
Data were entered into 20 microcomputers using the Census and Surveys Processing System (CSPro) software package. Data entry was carried out by forty entry operators and four supervisors. For quality assurance purposes, all questionnaires were double-entered and internal consistency checks performed.
Procedures and standard programs developed under the global MICS program and adapted to The Gambia questionnaire were used throughout. Data processing began simultaneously with data collection in April 2010 and was completed in August 2010. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software program, Version 18. Model syntax and tabulation plans developed by UNICEF were customized and used for this purpose.
Estimates of Sampling Error
The sample of respondents selected in the Gambia Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey is only one of the samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and size. Each of these samples would yield results that differ somewhat from the results of the actual sample selected.
Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between the estimates from all possible samples. The extent of variability is not known exactly, but can be estimated statistically from the survey data.
The following sampling error measures are presented in this appendix for each of the selected indicators:
1. Standard error (se): Sampling errors are usually measured in terms of standard errors for particular indicators (means, proportions, etc.). Standard error is the square root of the variance of the estimate. The Taylor linearization method is used for the estimation of standard errors.
2. Coefficient of variation (se/r) is the ratio of the standard error to the value of the indicator, and is a measure of the relative sampling error.
3. Design effect (deff) is the ratio of the actual variance of an indicator, under the sampling method used in the survey, to the variance calculated under the assumption of simple random sampling. The square root of the design effect (deft) is used to show the efficiency of the sample design in relation to the precision. A deft value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design is as efficient as a simple random sample, while a deft value above 1.0 indicates the increase in the standard error due to the use of a more complex sample design.
4. Confidence limits are calculated to show the interval within which the true value for the population can be reasonably assumed to fall, with a specified level of confidence. For any given statistic calculated from the survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error (r + 2.se or r - 2.se) of the statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design.
For the calculation of sampling errors from MICS data, SPSS Version 18 Complex Samples module has been used. The results are shown in the tables that follow. In addition to the sampling error measures described above, the tables also include weighted and unweighted counts of denominators for each indicator. Sampling errors are calculated for indicators of primary interest, for the national level, for the regions, and for urban and rural areas. Three of the selected indicators are based on households, 8 are based on household members, 13 are based on women, and 15 are based on children under 5. All indicators presented here are in the form of proportions. Table SE.1 shows the list of indicators for which sampling errors are calculated, including the base population (denominator) for EAC indicator. Tables SE.2 to SE.12 show the calculated sampling errors for selected domains.
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