The 2014 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) is the seventh DHS undertaken in Bangladesh, following those implemented in 1993-94, 1996-97, 1999-2000, 2004, 2007, and 2011. The main objectives of the 2014 BDHS are to:
• Provide information to meet the monitoring and evaluation needs of the health, population, and nutrition sector development program (HPNSDP)
• Provide program managers and policy makers involved in the program with the information they need to plan and implement future interventions
The specific objectives of the 2014 BDHS were as follows:
• To provide up-to-date data on demographic rates, particularly fertility and infant, and child mortality rates, at the national and divisional level
• To measure the level of contraceptive use of currently married women
• To provide data on maternal and child health, including antenatal care, assistance at delivery, postnatal care, newborn care, breastfeeding, immunizations, and prevalence and treatment of diarrhea and other diseases among children under age 5
• To assess the nutritional status of children (under age 5) and women by means of anthropometric measurements (weight and height), and to assess infant and child feeding practices
• To provide data on knowledge and attitudes of women about sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS
• To measure key education indicators, including school attendance ratios
• To provide community-level data on accessibility and availability of health and family planning services
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- Children age 0-5
- Ever married Women age 15-49
The survey was designed to produce representative results for the country as a whole, for the urban and the rural areas separately, and for each of the seven administrative divisions.
Unit of Analysis
- Children age 0-5
- Ever married Women age 15-49
Producers and sponsors
Authoring entity/Primary investigators
National Institute of Population Research and Training (NIPORT)
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of Bangladesh
Mitra and Associates
Implemented the study
Provided technical assistance
Government of Bangladesh
Funded the study
United States Agency for International Development
Funded the study
The sample for the 2014 BDHS is nationally representative and covers the entire population residing in noninstitutional dwelling units in the country. The survey used a sampling frame from the list of enumeration areas (EAs) of the 2011 Population and Housing Census of the People's Republic of Bangladesh, provided by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS). The primary sampling unit (PSU) for the survey is an EA created to have an average of about 120 households.
Bangladesh is divided into seven administrative divisions: Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi, Rangpur, and Sylhet. Each division is divided into zilas, and each zila into upazilas. Each urban area in an upazila is divided into wards, which are further subdivided into mohallas. A rural area in an upazila is divided into union parishads (UPs) and, within UPs, into mouzas. These divisions allow the country as a whole to be separated into rural and urban areas.
The survey is based on a two-stage stratified sample of households. In the first stage, 600 EAs were selected with probability proportional to the EA size, with 207 EAs in urban areas and 393 in rural areas. A complete household listing operation was then carried out in all of the selected EAs to provide a sampling frame for the second-stage selection of households. In the second stage of sampling, a systematic sample of 30 households on average was selected per EA to provide statistically reliable estimates of key demographic and health variables for the country as a whole, for urban and rural areas separately, and for each of the seven divisions. With this design, the survey selected 18,000 residential households, which were expected to result in completed interviews with about 18,000 ever-married women.
For further details of the sample design, see Appendix A of the final report.
Among a total of 17,989 selected households, 17,565 were found occupied. Interviews were successfully completed in 17,300, or 99 percent of households. A total of 18,245 ever-married women age 15-49 were identified in these households and 17,863 were interviewed, for a response rate of 98 percent. Response rates for households and eligible women are similar to those in the 2011 BDHS. The principal reason for nonresponse among women was their absence from home despite repeated visits to the household. The response rates do not vary notably by urban-rural residence.
Any analysis using the 2014 BDHS data requires that sampling weights be applied to ensure the actual representation of the survey results at the national and domain levels. Although the weighted distribution of urban-rural households in the survey was based on the urban-rural distribution in the 2011 population census, the sampling weights were adjusted to reflect a modified urban-rural household distribution recently reported by the BBS. After adjusting for undercount and including statistical metropolitan areas (SMAs) among the urban areas, the BBS estimated that the urban population was 28 percent (BBS 2014). The adjustment in the 2014 BDHS sampling weight was to generate a revised urbanrural population distribution and was not expected to lead to any significant differences in the overall survey indicators.
For further details on sampling weight calculation, see Appendix A.4 of the final report.
Dates of Data Collection (YYYY/MM/DD)
Mode of data collection
Data quality measures were implemented through several activities. There were four quality control teams from Mitra and Associates, each comprised of one male and one female staff person. They were sent to the field to visit the interviewing teams throughout the data collection period. Moreover, the professionals of the survey team made several visits to check the fieldwork.
In addition, NIPORT monitored fieldwork by sending two quality control teams, each comprised of three members. The teams went to the field for about three weeks in each phase. They oversaw use of the household listings and maps, observed one household and one individual interview of each interviewer, and spot-checked the completed questionnaires. The teams also revisited half of the households of one completed cluster for each survey team and checked whether selected households were visited and eligible respondents were properly identified and interviewed. Debriefing sessions were held between fieldworkers’ tours to discuss problems encountered in the field, clarifications, and administrative matters. Data quality was also monitored through field check tables generated concurrently with data processing. The main purpose of the tables was to allow the quality control teams to advise field teams of problems detected during data entry. Representatives from USAID, The DHS Program, and NIPORT, and other Technical Review Committee members, also monitored fieldwork through several field visits.
Type of Research Instrument
The 2014 BDHS used three types of questionnaires: a Household Questionnaire, a Woman’s Questionnaire, and a Community Questionnaire. The contents of the Household and Woman’s questionnaires were based on the MEASURE DHS Model Questionnaires. These model questionnaires were adapted for use in Bangladesh during a series of meetings with a Technical Working Group (TWG) that consisted of representatives from NIPORT, Mitra and Associates, International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), USAID/Bangladesh, and ICF International. Draft questionnaires were then circulated to other interested groups and were reviewed by the 2014 BDHS Technical Review Committee. The questionnaires were developed in English and then translated into and printed in Bangla.
The Household Questionnaire was used to list all the usual members and visitors in the selected households. Some basic information was collected on the characteristics of each person listed, including age, sex, education, current work status, birth registration, and individual possession of mobile phones. The main purpose of the Household Questionnaire was to identify women who were eligible for the individual interview. Information was collected about the dwelling unit, such as the source of water, type of toilet facilities, materials used to construct the floor, roof, and walls, ownership of various consumer goods, and availability of hand washing facilities. In addition, this questionnaire was used to record the height and weight measurements of ever-married women age 15-49 and children under age 6.
The Woman’s Questionnaire was used to collect information from ever-married women age 15-49.
The Community Questionnaire was administered in each selected cluster during the household listing operation and included questions about the existence of development organizations in the community and the availability and accessibility of health services and other facilities. The Community Questionnaire was administered to a group of four to six key informants who were knowledgeable about socioeconomic conditions and the availability of health and family planning services/facilities in the cluster. Key informants included community leaders, teachers, government officials, social workers, religious leaders, traditional healers, and health care providers among others.
Mitra and Associates
The completed 2014 BDHS questionnaires were periodically returned to Dhaka for data processing at Mitra and Associates. The data processing began shortly after fieldwork commenced. Data processing consisted of office editing, coding of open-ended questions, data entry, and editing of inconsistencies found by the computer program. Eight data entry operators and two data entry supervisors processed the data. Data processing commenced on July 24, 2014, and ended on November 20, 2014. The task was carried out using the Census and Survey Processing System (CSPro), a software jointly developed by the U.S. Census Bureau, ICF Macro, and Serpro S.A.
Data Quality Tables
- Household age distribution
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Completeness of reporting
- Births by calendar years
- Reporting of age at death in days
- Reporting of age at death in months
Note: See detailed data quality tables in APPENDIX C of the report.
The DHS Program
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The DHS Program
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