In 1998, UNICEF embarked on a process of helping countries assess progress for children at end-decade in relation to the World Summit for Children goals (New York, 1990).
The list of global indicators being used to assess progress at end-decade was developed through extensive consultation, both within UNICEF, particularly with Programme Division and the Regional Offices, and with WHO, UNESCO and the ILO. The global indicator list can be found in Annex 1 of the Executive Directive EXD/1999-03 dated 23 April 1999.
Mid decade experience
There are numerous sources of data for measuring progress at country level, but many either do not function well enough to give current and quality data, or do not provide the data required for assessing progress. Household surveys are capable of filling many of these data gaps. The mid-decade assessment led to 100 countries collecting data using the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS), household surveys developed to obtain specific mid-decade data, or via MICS questionnaire modules carried by other surveys. By 1996, 60 developing countries had carried out stand-alone MICS, and another 40 had incorporated some of the MICS modules into other surveys. The mid-decade questionnaire and manual, the countries where a standalone MICS was implemented.
The end-decade assessment
The end-decade MICS questionnaire and manual have been developed specifically to obtain the data for 63 of the 75 end-decade indicators. These draw heavily on experiences with the mid-decade MICS and the subsequent MICS evaluation. The content is organized into question modules, for countries to adopt or omit according to the data already available. The development of the end-decade MICS questionnaire and manual has drawn on an even wider spread of organizations than the mid-decade MICS. They include WHO, UNESCO, ILO, UNAIDS, the United Nations Statistical Division, CDC Atlanta, MEASURE (USAID), Johns Hopkins University, Columbia University, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and others.
The 2000 Sierra Leone Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey?2 has as its primary objectives:
- To provide up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women in Sierra Leone at the end of the decade and for looking forward to the next decade;
- to furnish data needed for monitoring progress toward goals established at the World Summit for Children and a basis for future action; and,
- to contribute to the improvement of data and monitoring systems in Sierra Leone and to strengthen technical expertise in the design, implementation, and analysis of such systems.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Households, Women, Children
Data downloaded from MICS2 website (www.childinfo.org) on May 24, 2011
Household: Household inforrmation panel, Education, Child labor, Water and Sanitation, Salt iodization, Disability and Maternal mortality.
Child: Birth registration and early learning, Vitamin A supplementation, Breastfeeding, Care of illness, Malaria, Immunization, Anthropometry
The 2000 Sierra Leone Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey—2 (MICS2) is a nationally representative survey of households, women, and children. The main objectives of the survey are to provide up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women in Sierra Leone at the end of the decade and to furnish data needed for monitoring progress toward goals established at the World Summit for Children and as a basis for future action.
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistics Office
Ministry of Development and Economic Planning
United Nations Children's Fund
United Nations Children's Fund
The sampling methodology used in the MICS2 survey was designed to provide estimates of health and education indicators at the national level, for urban and rural areas, and for the four regions of Sierra Leone: North, South, East and West. The sample was selected in three stages using a stratified cluster sampling methodology. Sierra Leone has been demarcated into 2,546 enumeration areas (EAs) for the purpose of collecting census data. The current population of each EA in Sierra Leone was estimated through the use of key informants at the chiefdom level. Refugee camps containing Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs) were considered to be additional EAs and were included in the sample frame of EAs in order to ensure that IDPs were adequately represented in the survey. Based on the EA population estimates, randomized systematic sampling was used to select 225 EAs for the survey. The probability of an EA's selection was proportional to the size of its population4, resulting in a self-weighting sample. Selected EAs were divided into segments of approximately 100 households each with the aid of a local informant. Maps of the selected EAs, maintained in the Cartographic Section of the CSO, were used to guide this "segmentation". One segment in each EA was then randomly selected. The map of this segment was then updated. This segment was then divided into pieces of approximately 20 households, one of which was randomly selected for inclusion in the survey. All households in the selected piece were listed on the Household Listing Form for the EA and included in the survey. This approach to sampling yielded an overall sample size of 4,566 households. A household was defined as "a group of people who all eat from the same pot", in line with the definition of household used in previous surveys in Sierra Leone. Five of the selected enume ration areas were not surveyed because they were not accessible during the enumeration period. Data from twelve additional EAs in the North that were surveyed were not processed because the fieldworkers had to flee Makeni when hostilities resumed between RUF and government forces in May 2000. Sample weights were used for reporting results to compensate for the seventeen clusters that were not included in the final database.
Full technical details of the sampling plan are available in Appendix C of the report.
As noted above, hostilities between the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) and forces aligned with the Government resumed during the final week of data collection for the MICS2 survey in May 2000. As a result, one cluster in the East and four clusters in the North could not be surveyed. Completed questionnaires from twelve clusters in the Northern region that had already been surveyed were stranded in Makeni when enumerators could not return to collect them. The completed questionnaires had been stored there for safekeeping while the survey team had travele d to remote regions to survey other clusters. Data from eight of these clusters have been retrieved recently and will shortly be added to the MICS2 database. In the original sample of 225 EAs there were 4566 households selected for the survey. There were 4207 households selected for the survey in the 208 clusters that were successfully surveyed and entered into the database. 4021 of these 4207 households were found to be occupied and were successfully surveyed, yielding a household response rate of 97 percent (Table 1; see Appendix F of the report). In the interviewed households, 5750 eligible women (age 15-49) were identified. Of these, 4923 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 85.6 percent. In addition, 3060 children under age five were listed in the household questionnaires of surveyed households. Questionnaires were completed for 2764 of these children for a response rate of 90.3 percent.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Data collection commenced immediately following the training of enumerators in late March 2000. The first two days of data collection took place in the Western region under the strict supervision of the Survey Coordinator, the UNICEF M&E Officer and the MICS2 Survey Consultant. These three individuals served as supervisors for both the Enumerators and Technical Supervisors. Common mistakes in both enumeration and supervision were observed and immediate feedback was given to the enumerators and supervisors. Based on this experience a Supervision Plan and Supervision Checklist were developed. The Survey Coordinator and the UNICEF M&E Officer used these supervisory tools to guide their subsequent supervision in other regions. Enumerators worked together in EAs in teams of four, and were accompanied by Technical and Associate Supervisors throughout the survey. Enumerators worked individually within households. Data collection continued for approximately five weeks and finished in early May 2000. Public sensitization for the survey was done on radio in all regions prior to the survey
The MICS2 manual provides a carefully constructed core questionnaire that is extremely comprehensive in nature. The core questionnaire is made up of three questionnaires: Household questionnaire, Questionnaire for women, and Questionnaire for children. Explicit instructions are given regarding the addition and subtraction of questions to the core questionnaire. Very minimal modifications were made to the questionnaires for the purpose of the Sierra Leone MICS2.
Optional modules such as the Disability Module and the Maternal Mortality Module were modified and added to the core questionnaire. Several additional questions were incorporated into existing modules to provide information pertinent to development and relief efforts in Sierra Leone. Any additions to or deletions from the core questionnaire were done within the guidelines detailed in the MICS2 manual.
The household questionnaire was administered in each household. This questionnaire collects information on household members including sex, age, literacy, marital status, and orphanhood status. The household questionnaire also includes modules on education, child labor, water and sanitation, salt iodization, disability and maternal mortality. The Questionnaire for women and Questionnaire for children were administered in each surveyed household for women age 15-49 and children under age five. For children, the questionnaire was administered to the mother or caretaker of the child.
The questionnaire for women contains the following modules:
- Child mortality;
- tetanus toxoid;
- maternal and newborn health;
- contraceptive use; and,
The questionnaire for children under age five includes modules on:
- Birth registration and early learning;
- Vitamin A supplementation;
- care of illness;
- immunization; and,
Translation of questionnaire
The MICS2 manual recommends that enumerators never verbally translate the questionnaire "on-the-spot" to a respondent during the survey. It is instead recommended that enumerators are provided with a full complement of different language versions of the MICS2 questionnaire for all locally spoken languages. This allows interviewers to interview each respondent in a reliable manner with a fully pre-tested version of the questionnaire in a language in which the respondent is fluent. This protocol is grounded in rigorous research methodology and clearly should be followed to the extent possible. However, this approach was logistically impossible to adhere to in Sierra Leone. Five different languages are spoken in Sierra Leone: English, Krio, Temne, Mende and Limba and the latter four are not written. In line with past surveys conducted by CSO, enumerators were provided with an English version of the questionnaire along with a list of key words (for each question on the questionnaire) in the language(s) spoken in the regions to be surveyed. Enumerators translated questions in an ad-lib fashion, while making sure to use the key words while translating.
Completed questionnaires were checked in the field by supervisors and then transported to Freetown, where Verifiers checked each questionnaire to make sure that it had been clearly and correctly completed. Questionnaires were then given to Data Entry Operators for entry into the database. Much of the software that was used to enter, process and analyze the data from the MICS2 survey had been previously developed by UNICEF Headquarters and merely needed to be modified for use in the Sierra Leone MICS2 survey. The software that was used to enter and process data was run in the EpiInfo6 software program. Data were entered on fourteen microcomputers that were rented for the purpose of the MICS2 survey. All questionnaires were double-entered and then verified using EpiInfo's Validate routine. CSO staff oversaw all aspects of data processing and management. Procedures and standard programs developed for MICS2 by UNICEF and adapted to the Sierra Leone questionnaire were used throughout the data management process. Data entry/processing began in June 2000 and was completed in September 2000.
Dataset available free of charge to registered users (www.childinfo.org).
MICS2 has put greater efforts in not only properly documenting the results published in the MICS2 country reports, but also to maximize the use of micro data sets via documentation and dissemination. For those MICS2 countries that granted UNICEF direct access to the micro data sets and documentation, a rigorous process was completed to ensure internal and external consistency, basic standards of data quality, corresponding documentation and, standardization of variable and value labels across countries.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download of the data files (for datasets obtained on-line)
United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Development Economics Data Group
Documentation of the DDI
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 01 (June 2011) - Prepared by IHSN/World Bank Microdata Library