HIV control efforts in sub-Saharan Africa meet with difficulties. Incidence and prevalence remains high, and little behaviour change seems to have taken place. The focus on HIV control has shifted to anti-retroviral therapy (ART), although this is unlikely either to be cost-effective or the reduce the incidence of HIV. There is reason to change the current approach. Three questions arise: Is there a need to adjust the view on the determinants of the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa? Are the right things being done to control HIV? Are the things that are being done, done in the right way? We try to answer these questions. The determinants of the epidemic are reviewed and summarized in Figure 2. The need to adjust the view on the determinants and get rid of myths is stressed. A possible, locally adaptable intervention mix is outlined. Male circumcision is a key intervention where socially acceptable. Operationalisation and organisational changes are briefly discussed. Conclusively, the need for a “social revolution” through the opening up of a discussion on sexuality in the community, as well as a focus on cost-effective interventions and a slimmed down, more effective organisation is underlined. Such steps might make it possible to considerably reduce HIV-incidence, even in low-income countries.