Background: Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) seropositivity is associated with sexual, environmental, and socioeconomic exposures. Whether these characteristics are independent risk factors is uncertain because of reliance on selected high-risk or hospital-based populations and incomplete adjustment for confounding. Therefore, we evaluated risk factors for KSHV seropositivity in a population-based study in Uganda using principal components analysis (PCA). Methods: The study population comprised 2,681 individuals randomly selected from a nationally-representative population-based HIV/AIDS sero-behavioral survey conducted in 2004/05. Questionnaire and laboratory data (97 variables) were transformed into a smaller set of uncorrelated variables using PCA. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between components and KSHV seropositivity. Results: Data were reduced to three principal components (PCs) labeled as Sexual behavioral, Socioeconomic, and Knowledge PCs. In crude analysis, KSHV seropositivity was associated with the Knowledge ( p trend = 0.012) and Socioeconomic components ( p trend = 0.0001), but not with the Sexual-behavioral component ( p trend = 0.066). KSHV seropositivity was associated with the Socioeconomic PC ( p trend = 0.037), but not with the Sexual-behavioral and Knowledge PCs, in the models including PCs, age, gender and geographic region. Conclusions: Our results fit with the view that in Uganda socioeconomic characteristic may influence KSHV seropositivity. Conversely, the results fit with the interpretation that in Uganda sexual-behavioral characteristics, if relevant, contribute minimally.