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Citation Information

Type Journal Article - Midwifery
Title Establishing midwifery in low-resource settings: Guidance from a mixed-methods evaluation of the Afghanistan midwifery education program
Author(s)
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2014
Page numbers 1056-1062
URL http://www.midwiferyjournal.com/article/S0266-6138(13)00330-6/abstract
Abstract
Background
the shortage of skilled birth attendants has been a key factor in the high maternal and newborn mortality in Afghanistan. Efforts to strengthen pre-service midwifery education in Afghanistan have increased the number of midwives from 467 in 2002 to 2954 in 2010.

Objective
we analyzed the costs and graduate performance outcomes of the two types of pre-service midwifery education programs in Afghanistan that were either established or strengthened between 2002 and 2010 to guide future program implementation and share lessons learned.

Design
we performed a mixed-methods evaluation of selected midwifery schools between June 2008 and November 2010. This paper focuses on the evaluation's quantitative methods, which included (a) an assessment of a sample of midwifery school graduates (n=138) to measure their competencies in six clinical skills; (b) prospective documentation of the actual clinical practices of a subsample of these graduates (n=26); and (c) a costing analysis to estimate the resources required to educate students enrolled in these programs.

Setting
for the clinical competency assessment and clinical practices components, two Institutes for Health Sciences (IHS) schools and six Community Midwifery Education (CME) schools; for the costing analysis, a different set of nine schools (two IHS, seven CME), all of which were funded by the US Agency for International Development.

Participants
midwives who had graduated from either IHS or CME schools.

Findings
CME graduates (n=101) achieved an overall mean competency score of 63.2% (59.9–66.6%) on the clinical competency assessment compared to 57.3% (49.9–64.7%) for IHS graduates (n=37). Reproductive health activities accounted for 76% of midwives' time over an average of three months. Approximately 1% of childbirths required referral or resulted in maternal death. On the basis of known costs for the programs, the estimated cost of graduating a class with 25 students averaged US$298,939, or US$10,784 per graduate.

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Zainullah, Partamin, Nasratullah Ansari, Khalid Yari, Mahmood Azimi, Sabera Turkmani, Pashtoon Azfar, Amnesty LeFevre, Jaime Mungia, Rehana Gubin, and Young-Mi Kim. "Establishing midwifery in low-resource settings: Guidance from a mixed-methods evaluation of the Afghanistan midwifery education program." Midwifery (2014).
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