This study analyzes the basic concepts and key issues of existing collaboration between government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in health care, using as an example the implementation of the DOTS (formerly an abbreviation for directly observed treatment, short course) strategy for tuberculosis (TB) control in Bangladesh. It also examines efforts by the Government of Bangladesh to improve health services delivery, especially for the poor, through collaboration with NGOs. Data were collected in 2001 and 2002 as a part of the process of developing a public-private partnership model for TB care in Bangladesh. Analyses of existing collaboration models in TB control strongly suggest that the government and NGO sectors can be complementary in controlling TB. We found an increasing trend of government collaborating with NGOs in implementing TB control programmes. The study indicates that government‚ÄìNGO collaboration is an effective way of improving access to and quality of TB and other health care services.