This article examines the effect of family planning programs on reproductive attitudes and contraceptive use behaviors. It aims to investigate the degree to which family planning programs enable Africans to shift to western contraceptive use from traditional and null contraceptive practices. It also examines the impact of the programs for both men and women. Data from the 1988 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, the 1988–99 Ghana Living Standards Survey, and the 1988 Ghana Population Census are used. Categorical data analysis techniques are used to analyze these data. This study finds that access to family planning services is associated with reduced family size preferences, increased approval of family planning, and knowledge of, and desire to use, contraception among both men and women in rural Ghana. As Ghana, like many parts of rural Africa, is a highly underdeveloped and pro-natalist area, this article concludes that family planning programs have the ability to influence reproductive attitudes and behavior, even under conditions of limited development.