What synergies exist between climate change mitigation and adaptation and economic performance in smallholder agriculture? This chapter attempts to identify pro-poor mitigation and adaptation practices, technologies, and policies for the dairy sector in Malawi , with a view to identifying Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) that might attract international financial support. NAMAs is a new funding modality under UNFCCC negotiations involving Annex 2 countries. Using survey data, this chapter investigates current farm management practices among Malawian smallholder dairy producers. It assesses the current production practices and sector vulnerability. It then identifies a number of unsustainable management practices on smallholder dairy farms, including poor feeding practices and manure management that potentially contribute to increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the sector. The introduction of improved management practices may offer the potential to improve incomes while lowering emissions. Evidence of such win-win outcomes can provide the basis for including agricultural mitigation in national reporting targets.