A community-based antiretroviral therapy (CBART) program has been operating in Rwimi sub-county in Western Uganda since 2005. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether this CBART program led to increased knowledge and awareness of HIV and ART, improved attitudes towards people living with the disease, and improved HIV prevention practices in the broader community. Surveys and focus group discussions (FGDs) were carried out from September to December 2009 with 405 residents of Rwimi sub-county and 193 adult residents of a nearby sub-county without a CBART program. Logistic regression was used to describe associations with ART knowledge, HIV/AIDSrelated attitudes, HIV testing, and condom use. Residents of Kisomoro had more positive results in all areas. However, in the multivariable models this was only statistically significant for HIV/AIDS-related attitudes. Findings from the FGDs confirmed that, overall, the CBART program did not appear to significantly increase HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and prevention practices.