The emerging challenge to deal with the HIV and AIDS pandemic is real and complex with profound short- and long-term consequences and implications to every aspect of life. Social workers therefore make a holistic assessment which addresses the mental, emotional, physical and environmental needs, challenges and successes of the clients. This paper is a literature review which describes the practice of social workers in health care settings in Botswana in working with HIV and AIDS issues. Social Workers’ roles in hospitals involve providing psychosocial support; discharge planning; linking clients with community services and providing education to clients and their families. The paper also discusses challenges faced; and lastly implications for practice.