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Citation Information

Type Journal Article - Environmental monitoring and assessment
Title Water quality assessment: surface water sources used for drinking and irrigation in Zaria, Nigeria are a public health hazard
Volume 184
Issue 5
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2012
Page numbers 3389-3400
URL https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Anthony_Okoh/publication/51732797_Water_quality_assessment_Surf​ace_water_sources_used_for_drinking_and_irrigation_in_Zaria_Nigeria_are_a_public_health_hazard/links​/544652240cf22b3c14de1a91.pdf
We assessed the quality and pollution status
of source surface waters in Zaria, Nigeria by
monitoring the nature, cause and extent of pollution
in Samaru stream, Kubanni River and Kubanni dam
over a period of 10 months, between March and
December 2002. A total of 228 water samples was
collected from 12 sites and analysed for a total of ten
physicochemical and one bacteriological quality
indicators, using standard methods. Aesthetic water
quality impairment parameters were also observed.
The mean values of most water quality parameters
were significantly higher (P<0.05) in both the stream
and river than in the dam. There was no significant
correlation between faecal coliform counts (FCC) and
water temperature (in the range 15–33°C); pH (5.77–
7.32); and turbidity (1.4–567 NTU). The high FCC
ranged from 2.0×101 to 1.6×106 MPN/100 ml and
exceeded the WHO standards for drinking water and
water used for fresh-produce irrigation, and correlated
positively (P<0.05) with conductivity (in the range
68–1,029 µS/cm); TDS (10.0–70.0 mg/l); TSS
(10.0–70.0 mg/l); Cl (7.5–181 mg/l); PO4
(0.01–0.41 mg/l); NO3
N (0.6–3.8 mg/l) and BOD5
(0.1–14.9 mg/l). The main pollution sources were
municipal wastewater, stormwater runoffs, the ABU
sewage treatment plant, abattoir effluents and irrigation
farms treated with chemical fertilisers. We conclude that
these water bodies are potentially hazardous to public
health and that proper sewage treatment and river
quality monitoring are needed to warn against hazards
to public health.

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