The major objective of this research was to analyze supply chain of agricultural inputs in Tanzania using the subsidized fertilizer in the Southern highlands as a case study. It specifically sought to describe the subsidy fertilizer supply chain in the Southern highland zone with a view of identifying key stakeholders in the system and their linkages. The study further, aimed at examining the fertilizer consumption levels and the impact of fertilizer subsidy programme on maize production in the study area. Finally, the study presented policy options that would help improve the fertilizer subsidy programme. The study at large based on secondary data and information, obtained from various sources including; Sokoine National Agricultural Library, documents and consultations with officials from input unit in the Ministry of Agriculture, Food Security and Co-operatives, input transporting companies particularly Tanzania Fertilizer Company, input related publications from various sources including internet.