The reporting of findings from Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is an important part of educational monitoring in Germany. However, until now, the subsample of students with special educational needs (SEN) had been too small to single out this group and report findings. In PISA 2012, the sample of 9th-grade students in Germany was thus expanded by students with SEN in inclusive settings and students with SEN in an oversample of 49 special schools. This article describes and compares the proficiency of students with SEN in inclusive settings and in special schools. In all 3 PISA domains assessing literacy, reading, mathematics, and science, students with SEN in inclusive settings achieve proficiency Level 2, whereas students with SEN in special schools achieve proficiency Level 1. It turns out that students with SEN have a lower average socioeconomic status than regular students, especially those in special schools. Possible explanations for the higher achievement of students with SEN in inclusive settings are discussed.