Using data from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS), the author compares the living arrangements of African American and immigrant children from 1880 through 2000. African American children were less likely than foreign-born white children to live with two parents throughout this protracted period, with the gap widening sharply after 1960. African Americans and the small group of nonwhite immigrants exhibited roughly similar family patterns before 1960. That difference also increased during later decades as both foreign-born Asian and foreign-born black children were more likely than African Americans to reside with two parents. Immigrant children from virtually all nationalities were more likely than black children to live with two parents. Over time, widowhood declined as a cause of paternal absence for all groups, and the influence of marital disruption increased. Nonmarital motherhood increased markedly as a cause of mother-only families for blacks after 1960.