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Citation Information

Type Thesis or Dissertation - Master of Education in Educational Administration
Title Headteachers’ related factors influencing participation of orphaned and vulnerable children in public primary schools in Kisumu East Sub-County, Kenya
Author(s)
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2015
URL http://erepository.uonbi.ac.ke/bitstream/handle/11295/92829/Otieno_Headteachers' related factors​influencing participation of Orphaned and vulnerable children in Public primary schools in Kisumu​East sub county, Kenya.pdf?sequence=1
Abstract
Participation of orphaned and vulnerable children in education remains a pressing
challenge for many countries. These children face a variety of disadvantages and
impediments which increase their vulnerability and helplessness. Headteachers
have crucial role to play in the provision of resources and psychosocial support
that enhance the enrollment and attendance of OVC in primary education.
Purpose of the study was to investigate headteachers’ related factors influencing
participation of orphaned and vulnerable children in public primary schools in
Kisumu East Sub-County, Kenya. Objectives of the study were; to determine the
extent to which head teacher’s organization of teachers to provide guidance and
counseling influences participation of orphaned and vulnerable children in
primary education, to establish the extent to which head teacher’s organization of
peer counseling influences orphaned and vulnerable children’s participation in
primary education, to examine the extent to which head teacher’s competence in
resource mobilization influences participation of orphaned and vulnerable
children in primary education, to assess the extent to which head teachers’
creation of networks for provision of basic needs influences participation of
orphaned and vulnerable children in public primary schools. This study leaned
on Abraham Maslow’s theory of human needs and motivation, and a conceptual
framework which linked dependent variable with independent variables. The
theory was applicable since headteacher related factors influencing participation
in primary education by orphaned and vulnerable children are largely determined
by headteacher competence. The study adopted descriptive survey design and the
target population was 420 teachers, 40 headteachers and 1,240 OVC in all 40
public primary schools in Kisumu East Sub-County. Simple random sampling
was used to select sample size for the study which comprised of 20 headteachers,
84 teachers and stratified sampling was used to select 124 OVC from 20 sampled
public primary schools in Kisumu East Sub-County.The study used questionnaires
to collect data from headteachers and teachers where each set of questionnaires
had three sections. Section A presented the demographic information, while
section B and C were based on the set objectives. Focus Group Discussion was
used for OVC. Content validity was used for validation of the questionnaires. To
establish reliability, a pilot study was carried out. The researcher sought
authorization to conduct the research from the National Council of Science and
Technology and Innovation (NACOSTI) as well as the consent of the sub county
education officer, Kisumu East Sub-County to conduct research in Kisumu East
Sub-County, Kenya. The study generated both qualitative and quantitative data.
For the quantitative data, analysis of the data was done through descriptive
statistics by use of frequencies and percentages while qualitative data was first
organized into themes corresponding to the study objectives. From the study
findings, the researcher concludes that, participation in primary education by
orphans and vulnerable children is largely determined by the availability of
guidance and counseling for OVC, peer counseling support, resource mobilization
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of stakeholders and NGOs and creation of networks for the provision of basic
needs of OVC. Therefore, based on the findings of this study, the researcher gives
the following recommendations intended to improve orphaned and vulnerable
children participation in primary schools in Kisumu East Sub-County as well as
nationwide in general. Despite efforts by OVC to be enrolled and attend school,
the absence of guidance and counseling together with lack of peer counseling,
inadequate resources to support learning and lack of basic needs annuls their
vision since lack of enough learning support leaves the them with only other
options including dropping out of school, early marriages (for girls), child labour,
living on the streets and peddling. Participation in primary education in Kenya is
largely pegged on the economic background of the OVC s’ relatives or guardian
as well as number of available support in primary schools which largely constitute
the overall school enrollment and attendance. The study clearly indicates that,
when children are not adequately supported in learning, they tend to resort to
other means of life support. This denies the OVC their right to education. OVC
are predisposed to more learning challenges and consequently may have less
chance to access primary education. Education is a right to all children and
therefore it is imperative that all children irrespective of their status to be enrolled
and attend school. Schools should therefore create conducive atmosphere which is
welcoming and accommodative. The OVC presence in schools should be
maintained by ensuring that they are no hindrances to attendance in school such
as lack of basic needs. There should be well enhanced and effective curriculum
programmes that enhance smooth learning for OVC who face various difficulties
both at home and at school. Given the scope and limitations of this study, the
following areas are recommended for further studies: A study on participation of
OVC in primary education should be carried out in sub- counties other than
Kisumu East Sub-County for comparison purpose. A comparative study should be
carried out within the context of preschools in order to draw comprehensive
policy recommendations on participation of OVC from both the pre-school
through primary school up to secondary. A model of the study should be carried
out incorporating more variables that possibly influence participation of OVC in
primary schools. These variables also include non-head teacher related factors as
well as home background factors.

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