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Citation Information

Type Journal Article - The Lancet HIV
Title Paediatric HIV testing beyond the context of prevention of mother-to-child transmission: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Author(s)
Volume 3
Issue 10
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2016
Page numbers e473-e481
URL http://fieldresearch.msf.org/msf/bitstream/10144/618802/1/Cohn+et+al+-+2016+-+Paediatric+HIV+testing​+beyond+the+context+of+prevention.pdf
Abstract
Background Many HIV-positive children in low-income and middle-income countries remain undiagnosed. Although
HIV testing in children at health facilities is recommended by WHO, it is not well implemented. This systematic
review and meta-analysis examines the case-fi nding benefi t of HIV screening in children aged 0–5 years in low-income
and middle-income countries.
Methods We did this systematic review and meta-analysis in accordance with an a-priori protocol. We searched
PubMed, MEDLINE, WHO Global Index Medicus, Web of Science, Médecins Sans Frontières, Cochrane, Embase,
CABS Abstracts, and LILACS databases for articles published between Jan 1, 2004, and April 30, 2016, that reported
the quantitative prevalence of HIV detected through screening in four key contexts (paediatric inpatient settings,
paediatric outpatient settings, nutrition centres, and expanded programme on immunisation centres) in paediatric
populations in low-income and middle-income countries. Articles were identifi ed and data were extracted in duplicate.
The primary outcome was HIV prevalence, for which we used a DerSimonian-Laird random-eff ects meta-analysis to
pool prevalence data and 95% CIs. We did stratifi ed analyses according to geographical context and testing strategy.
This study is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42014014372.
Findings Our search found 2996 studies, of which 26 met the inclusion criteria. Paediatric HIV prevalence across all
settings was 15·6% (95% CI 11·8–19·5). HIV prevalence by setting was highest in paediatric inpatient settings
(21·1%, 95% CI 14·9–27·3), followed by nutrition centres (13·1%, 95% CI 3·4–22·7), expanded programme on
immunisation centres (3·3%, 95% CI 0–6·9), and paediatric outpatient settings (2·7%, 95% CI 0·3–5·2). Universal
testing and testing triggered by symptoms had similar diagnostic yield in the inpatient setting (21·3%, 95% CI
11·6–31·0 in triggered testing vs 20·9%, 95% CI 13·5–28·3 in universal testing).
Interpretation HIV testing in paediatric populations in low-income and middle-income countries outside the context
of prevention of mother-to-child transmission programmes provides an important opportunity to identify HIVpositive
children. For countries wishing to prioritise interventions, the highest diagnostic yields were obtained from
inpatient wards and nutrition centres. Universal testing might be the preferred approach since it did not have a
substantially lower diagnostic yield than triggered testing

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