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Citation Information

Type Journal Article - International Journal of Chemical Studies
Title Climate change and challenges of water and food security for smallholder farmers of Uttar Pradesh and mitigation through carbon sequestration in agricultural lands: An overview
Volume 5
Issue 2
Publication (Day/Month/Year) 2017
Page numbers 221-236
URL http://www.chemijournal.com/archives/2017/vol5issue2/PartD/5-1-68-200.pdf
Approximately 75% of the Himalayan glaciers are on retreat and will disappear by 2035. Moreover in
Uttar Pradesh, India by 2050 the rainfall could drop by 10%, which would reduce drainage by 17%.
Majority of the fresh water resources has already been depleted and there is reduction in agricultural
production globally with escalation in population and food demand. Global food supply will depend on
how well agriculture adopts to climate change. The apparent impacts of the global climate change in
India include erratic monsoon, high intensity floods, increased frequency of draughts, decreasing crop
yields among others. Rapid industrial development, urbanization and the increasing demand for irrigation
water to feed the burgeoning population of India are already placing immense pressure on water
resources. There is a direct link between the rise in global temperature and damage to eco-systems. About
130 million hectares (mha) land in India is undergoing different levels of degradation, namely water
erosion (32.8 mha), wind erosion (10.8 mha), desertification (8.5 mha), water logging (8.5 mha). The
greenhouse gases (GHGs) in atmosphere are increasing at the rate of 0.5%, 0.6% and 0.25 ppbv yr-1
CO2, CH4 and N2O, respectively. Contribution of these three GHGs to global warming is to an extent of
20% due to agricultural activities and 14% due to in land use changes and attendant deforestation. Major
agricultural activities that contribute to emission of GHGs include ploughing, application of manures and
fertilizers, biomass burning and crop residue removal. Historic global C loss due to agriculture is
estimated at 55 to 100 Pg from soil C pool and 100 to 150 Pg from the biotic C pool. Adoption of
recommended agricultural practices can lead to enhanced in soil organic carbon (SOC) storage and
restoration of soil quality. Trends indicate that agricultural productivity will decline up to 25 percent
which could be as much as 50 percent in rain-fed agriculture. Small and marginal farmers with small land
holdings will be more vulnerable to climate change. With the temperature increasing and precipitation
fluctuations, water availability and crop production are likely to decrease in the future. This paper also
presents easily and economically feasible options to ensure water and food security under climate change
and recommend formation of effective adaptation and mitigation polices and strategies to minimizing the
impact of climate change on water resources and irrigation. The long-term solution to the risk of potential
global warming lies in finding alternatives to fossil fuel. Therefore, the strategy of soil C sequestration is
a bridge to the future.

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