This study investigates the determinants and characteristics of women’s income in Mali. Malian men and women do not entirely pool their incomes within the household, and women’s income is particularly important in influencing child health and nutritional outcomes. The study estimates two different models: an income determinants model and a model that describes different categories of women based on their income-generating activities. Results from model 1 show that women in the irrigated rice zone have the highest incomes, ceteris paribus, followed by women in the coarse grains zone. The cotton zone produces the lowest women’s incomes, despite having the highest men’s and household income levels. Other significant determinants include the women’s age, being married to the head of the household, the composition of the household and asset levels. In the second model, different income-generating activities have different impacts on incomes, depending on the region in which the women live. Women in the cotton and coarse grains zones receive the highest marginal benefit from participating in the sale of wild products, such as shea butter, but not in the irrigated area, where more profitable agricultural activities exist for women. The results imply that agricultural growth and higher household incomes do not automatically lead to gender equity or better welfare for women and children. In the cotton zone, particularly, complementary interventions are needed to counteract the negative impact of cotton production on women’s incomes.