Urban Bi-Annual Employment Unemployment Survey, Round One 2003 (1996 E.C)
Labor Force Survey [hh/lfs]
Statistical information on all aspects of socio-economic activities is essential for the designing, monitoring evaluation of development plans and policies for gagging the growth of investment. Labour force surveys are one of the important sources of data for assessing the role of the population of the country in the economic and social development process. These surveys provide data on the main characteristics of the work force engaged or available to be engaged in productive activities during a given period and also its distribution in the various sectors of the economy. It is also useful to indicate the extent of available and unutilized human recourses that must be absorbed by the national economy to ensure full employment and economic well being of the population. Furthermore, the information obtained from such surveys is useful for the purpose of macro-economic monitoring and evaluation human resource development planning. The other broad objective of statistics on the labour force is for the measurement of relationship between employment, income and other social and economic characteristics of the economically active population for the purpose of formulating, monitoring and evaluation of employment policy and programs. Seasonal and other variations and changes over time in the size and characteristics of the employment and unemployment can be monitored using up-to-date information from labour force survey.
CSA has been providing labour force and related data at different levels and with varying details in their content. These include the 1976 Addis Ababa Man Power and Housing Sample Survey the 1978 Survey on Population and Housing Characteristics of Seventeen Major Towns, the 1980/81 and 1987/88 Rural Labour Force Surveys, and the 1984 & 1994 Population and Housing Census. The 1996 and 2002 Surveys of Informal Sector and most of the household surveys also provide limited data on the area. Some information can also be derived from small, large and medium scale establishment surveys. Till the 1999 survey there hasn't been a comprehensive national labour force survey representing both urban and rural areas.
The latest data in the subject had been collected before four years and can be considered relatively outdated as the sector is dynamic and sensitive to economic and social changes. Moreover, it lacks data for trend and comparable analysis. Thus, to fill-in the data gap in this area, a series of current and continuous labour force survey need to be undertaken. Recognizing this fact and in response to request from different data users, the CSA has launched a biannual employment-unemployment survey program starting October, 2003 G.C
This survey is the first in the series and will serve as a baseline data for tracing changes. This program covers only urban areas of all regions. Rural areas will be included in the future as necessary. The survey is planned to be conducted twice every year, one in October and another in April. October and April in Ethiopia represent peak and slack agricultural periods.
Objectives of the survey:
The bi-annual employment and unemployment survey program was designed to provide statistical data on the size and characteristics of the economically active and the non-active population of the country on continuous basis. The data will be useful for policy makers, planners, researchers, and other institutions and individuals engaged in the design, implementation and monitoring of human resource development projects and the performance of the economy.
The specific objectives of the survey are to:
- Generate data on the size of work force that is available to participate in production process;
- Determine the status and rate of economic participation of different sub-groups of the population;
- Identify those who are actually contributing to the economic development (employed) and those out of the sphere;
- Determine the size and rate of unemployed population;
- Provide data on the structure of the working population;
- Obtain information about earnings from paid employment;
- Identify the distribution of employed population in the formal/informal sector of the economy;
- Generate baseline data to trace changes over time in the future.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- Individual aged 10 years and above
Version 1.1: Edited and non anonymized dataset, for internal use only.
The scope of Urban Employment Unemployment Survey includes:
- Household: Area identification and demographic characteristics of the selected households.
- Individual aged 10 and above: Economic activities during the last 6 months, economic activities during the last 7 days and unemployment and characteristics of unemployed persons.
The survey is mainly aimed at providing information on the economic characteristics of the population aged 10 years and over, i.e., their activity status, employment, and unemployment situation. It has also covered detailed socio-demographic background variables such as age, sex, relationship to the head of household, educational status, training and marital status.
The 2003 Urban Bi Annual Employment and Unemployment survey covered only urban parts of the country. Except three zones of Afar and six zones of Somali regions, where the residents are pastoralists, all urban centers of the country were considered in this survey.
All households in the selected samples, except residents of collective quarters, homeless persons and foreigners.
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistical Authority
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Government of Ethiopia
Sample Design and Sample Size:
Information from the listing of the 1994 Population and Housing Census was utilized to develop the sampling frame for the 2003 Urban Bi Annual Employment and Unemployment Survey. It was by taking into account of cost and precision of major variables that determination of sample size was achieved. Moreover, in order to judge precisions of major variables, the 1999 Labor Force Survey result was the main source of information that was taken into consideration.
Except Harari, Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa, where all urban centers of the domain were incorporated in the survey, in other domains a three stage stratified cluster sample design was adopted to select the samples from each domain. The primary sampling units (PSU's) were urban centers selected systematically using probability proportional to size; size being number of households obtained from the 1994 Population and Housing Census. From each selected urban centers enumeration areas (EA's) were selected as a second stage sampling unit (SSU). The selection of the SSU's was also done using probability proportional to size; size being number of households obtained from the 1994 Population and Housing Census. For each sampled EA a fresh list of households was prepared at the beginning of the survey. Thirty households from each sample EA were selected at the third stage. The survey questionnaire was finally administered to those thirty households selected at the last stage. The selection scheme for Harari, Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa was similar to the case explained above. However, in these three domains instead of a three-stage design a two-stage stratified cluster sample design with enumeration areas as PSU and households (from the fresh list) as secondary sampling unit was used.
Note: Distribution of sampling units (planned and covered) by domain (reporting level) is given in Summary Table 2.1 of the 2003 Urban Bi-annual Employment Unemployment Survey Round 1 report.
As regards the response rate of the survey, a total of 99 urban centers were selected and incorporated into the survey. To be covered by the survey, 527 enumeration areas was initially selected, and the survey could successfully be carried out in all the 527 (100%) of the EA's. The total number of expected households that were to be interviewed was 15810, however, due to different reasons 126 sample households were not interviewed. As a result only 15684 households was actually covered by the survey, which made the ultimate response rate of the survey 99.2 %.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
About 60 field supervisors involved with an average supervisor-enumerator ratio of 1 : 5. Out of the total enumerators about 149 were recruited on contract basis and 88 were permanently stationed enumerators for price survey. Senior staff members from the CSA head quarters in Addis Ababa, apart from giving training to the enumerators and supervisors at Branch Statistical Office level, participated in the field supervision activities, which took about one week. Furthermore, during fieldwork, statisticians from different department visited nearly all Branch Statistical Offices and selected urban enumeration areas. In this instance they have discussed on the objectives and importance of the survey, the expected quality of the data and some other related issues with supervisors and enumerators.
Data Collection Notes
Training of Field Staff:
For the purpose of the survey, the training program of enumerators, supervisors and other field and office staff was conducted in two stages. The first stage training was conducted at the head quarters of the CSA, in Addis Ababa for about five days. The participants were selected from professionals and sub-professionals with long time experiences, branch office statisticians and coordinators, who were to train enumerators and supervisors during the second stage of training conducted at the Branch Statistical Offices. The training was guided by an enumerator and supervisor manual, which consists of detailed explanation of concepts, ideas and instructions on how to fill each entry in the questionnaire.
All the Branch Statistical Offices of the CSA participated in the survey undertaken, that is, in organizing the second stage of training, in deploying the field staff to their respective sites of assignment, and retrieving completed questionnaires and submitting them to the head office for data processing. They were also responsible in administering the financial and logistic aspect of the survey as well as field supervision within the areas of their assignment.
The training at the branch office, which lasted for about seven days, consisted of theoretical discussions on concepts, definitions, and techniques of completing the questionnaire, as well as mock and practical field practice interview of households and/or household members. The objectives of mock and practical interviewing of households were twofold. First, it enabled to assess how well the theoretical class discussions were understood by all participants, so that they could convey the same message to the enumerators and the supervisors. The second objective was to examine the difficulty, which would likely be encountered during actual fieldwork.
The second stage of training was organized for all field staff and was conducted at 10 selected Branch Statistical Offices. Those who were trained at the head office in turn gave similar training for enumerators and field supervisors for about 7 days. The training consisted of classroom discussions, mock-interview and one-day field practice. In addition, thorough discussions were made after field practice. The discussions were intended to exchange experiences among participants and pinpoint the areas of the survey questions that need more care and attention.
Organization of the Fieldwork:
In order to carry out this survey with the desired level of quality, there was a need to organize a large staff that performs the various survey activities. The 25 Branch Statistical Offices of the Authority carried out the data collection operation. These offices have permanent and contract enumerators stationed in the selected enumeration areas. The data collection operation of the survey, involved a total of about 237 enumerators and about 60 field supervisors involved with an average supervisor - enumerator ratio of 1:5. Out of the total enumerators about 149 were recruited on contract basis and 88 were permanently stationed enumerators for price survey.
The interviews were made by going from house-to-house using a structured questionnaire. The data was collected from each sampled household and the respondent from whom the information collected was the head of the household or other responsible household member. Most of the enumerators were assigned to 2-3 sampled enumeration areas in which they could easily converse with the respondent's dialect. Interpreters were made available in cases where there is difficulty to converse. Data collection took place between October 18 and November 18/2003.
In some of the sample sites the data collection was carried out in phases. That is, after completing the data collection in the selected enumeration area enumerators were shifted to another assigned next adjacent sample sites to carry out the same exercise. Field supervision was undertaken side by side with the data collection. During the survey data collection operation, close and regular supervision was undertaken at various levels. Spot checks, re-interviewing and a thorough scrutiny of filled-in questionnaires were applied to ensure that the data collection activities being carried out according to the given instruction. In addition to this, the statisticians in branch statistical offices and branch statistical office heads made supervision of the data collection operation.
Senior staff members from the CSA head quarters in Addis Ababa, apart from giving training to the enumerators and supervisors at Branch Statistical Office level, participated in the field supervision activities, which took about one week. Furthermore, during fieldwork, statisticians from different department visited nearly all Branch Statistical Offices and selected urban enumeration areas. In this instance they have discussed on the objectives and importance of the survey, the expected quality of the data and some other related issues with supervisors and enumerators.
Central Statistical Authority
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
The survey has used a structured questionnaire to solicit the required data. Before taking its final shape, the draft questionnaire was tested by undertaking a pre-test. The pre-test was conducted in Addis Ababa, Debreziet and Sendafa. Based on the findings of the pre-test, the content, layout and presentation of the questionnaire was amended. Comments and inputs on the draft contents of the survey questionnaire obtained from user-producer forum were also incorporated in the final questionnaire.
The questionnaire is organized in to five sections;
Section - 1: Area identification of the selected household: this section dealt with area identification of respondents such as region, zone, wereda, etc.,
Section - 2: Demographic characteristics of household: it consisted of the general socio-demographic characteristics of the population such as age, sex, education, states & types of training and marital status.
Section - 3: Economic activity during the last six months: this section covered the usual economic activity status, number of weeks of Employment /Unemployment and reasons for not usually working.
Section - 4: Productive activities during the last seven days: this section dealt with the status and characteristics of employed persons such as hours of work occupation, industry, employment status, and Earnings from employment.
Section - 5: Unemployment and characteristics of unemployed persons: the section focused on the size and characteristics of the unemployed population.
Note: The questionnaires are provided as external resource.
Data Editing, Coding and Verification:
The filled-in questionnaires that were retrieved from the field were first subjected to manual editing and coding. During the fieldwork the field supervisors, Statisticians and the heads of branch statistical offices have checked the filled-in questionnaires and carried out some editing. However, the major editing and coding operation was carried out at the head office. All the edited questionnaires were again fully verified and checked for consistency before they were submitted to the data entry. After the data was entered, it was again verified using the computer.
Data Entry, Cleaning and Tabulation:
Using the computer edit specification prepared earlier for this purpose, the entered data were checked for consistencies and then computer editing or data cleaning was made by referring back to the filled-in questionnaire. This is an important part of data processing operation in attaining the required level of data quality. Consistency checks and re-checks were also made based on tabulation results. Computer programs was developed by data processing department for data entry, data cleaning and tabulation using Integrated Microcomputer Processing System (IMPS) software.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Estimation procedures of total, ratio and sampling errors are given in Appendix 1 of the 2003 Urban Bi-annual Employment Unemployment Survey Round 1 report.
The Central Statistical Agency (CSA) is committed to achieving excellence in the provision of timely, reliable and affordable official statistics for informed decision making in order to maximize the welfare of all Ethiopians. This is achieved through the collection and analysis of censuses, surveys and the use of administrative data as well as the dissemination a range of statistical products and providing assistance and services to users.
A microdata dissemination policy is established by CSA to address the conditions and the manner in which anonymized microdata files may be released to users for research purposes. It also strives to identify the different levels of anonymization for different categories of data use. This policy is available at CSA website (www.csa.gov.et <http://www.csa.gov.et>).
CSA will release microdata files for use by researchers for scientific research purposes when:
The Director General is satisfied that all reasonable steps have been taken to prevent the identification of individual respondents
The release of the data will substantially enhance the analytic value of the data that have been collected
For all but purely public files, researchers disclose the nature and objectives of their intended research,
It can be demonstrated that there are no credible alternative sources for these data, and
The researchers have signed an appropriate undertaking.
Terms and conditions of use of public data files are the following:
The data and other materials provided by CSA will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of CSA.
The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the CSA.
No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by CSA, or among data from the CSA and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from CSA will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset.
An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to CSA.
The original collector of the data, CSA, and the relevant funding agencies bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
Cost Recovery Policy:
It is the policy of CSA to encourage broad use of its products by making them affordable for users. Accordingly, CSA attempts to ensure that the costs of creating anonymized microdata files are built-in to the survey budget.
At the same time, CSA attempts to recover costs associated with the provisions of special services that benefit only a specific group. Information on the price of each dataset is available at CSA website (www.csa.gov.et <http://www.csa.gov.et>).
The following statement must be used as citation:
"Central Statistical Authority of Ethiopia (CSA). Urban Bi-annual Employment Unemployment Survey 2003 Round 1 (UEUS 2003)"
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Central Statistical Agency
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Production and documentation of the study
International Household Survey Network
Review of the metadata
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 02: Adopted from "DDI-ETH-CSA-UEUS-R1-2003-v1.1" DDI, which was done by Ethiopian Central Statistical Agency.