The Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS) has a long tradition of conducting the Household Expenditure Survey (HES), which dates back to the pre-independence period. After liberation, BBS carried out the first HES in 1973-74. Since then, including the latest survey in 1995-96, BBS has completed 12 rounds of the HES to-date. In 1983-84, the diary system for collecting information on household food consumption was introduced.
For the first time, the 1995-96 HES also collected comprehensive information on (1) the education characteristics of household members through a special purpose education questionnaire; and (2) community characteristics in rural areas through a separate community level questionnaire. Furthermore, the 1995-96 HES round is also the first survey conducted by BBS in which data entry was carried out in the regional statistical offices using microcomputers. This allowed early detection and correction of inconsistencies and errors in the data, as a result of which data quality has improved considerably. Finally, most of the work on data processing and tabulation has been carried using statistical analysis software on microcomputers, which has allowed BBS to publish this report in a much shorter period of time than has been possible in the past. These innovations are based on technical assistance from the World Bank and are derived from the Bank’s Living Standard Measurement Surveys.
The Household Expenditure Survey is one of the most important instrument for estimating rationally representative comprehensive measures of expenditures on food and non-food, consumption, income, investment and savings. It also provides information for measuring the distribution of welfare and the level of poverty in the country. HES data are also used to describe the trends in access to utilization of public services such as electricity, water supply, sanitation, etc.
The main unit of observation in this survey is the household, which has been defined to be a dwelling unit where one or more persons live and eat together under a common cooking arrangement. In addition to collecting data at the household level, the survey also collects information on a number of important socio-demographic characteristics for all household members.
The main objectives of the survey can briefly be summarized as being to:
- obtain detailed data on household income, expenditure and consumption
- estimate household demand functions for various items
- determine poverty lines and provide poverty indicators/measures
- provide information about living standards and nutritional status of the population
- determine weights for the consumer price indices
- provide household level consumption data used in compiling national account estimates
- assess gender variation in selected characteristics
- help in conducting research on issues of policy interest, and in formulating appropriate public policies
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
consumption/consumer behaviour [1.1]
income, property and investment/saving [1.5]
basic skills education [6.1]
Producers and sponsors
Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS)
A two-stage stratified random sampling technique was followed in drawing the sample for the Household Expenditure Survey 1995-96 under the framework of Integrated Multipurpose Sample (IMPS) design developed on the basis of Population and Housing Census 1991. This design consists of 372 Primary Sampling Units (PSU) throughout the country. There are 252 rural and 120 urban PSUs. The PSU is defined as contiguous two or more enumeration areas (EA) used in the Population and Housing Census 1991. Each PSU comprises of around 250 households.
In the first stage, a total of 372 PSUs were drawn from the sample frame with probability proportional to size (PPS). These PSUs were selected from the 14 different strata. There were 5 rural and 9 urban strata (4 Statistical Metropolitan Areas (SMA) and 5 municipal areas). In the second stage, 20 households were selected from each PSU by systematic random sampling method.
Amongst the 372 PSUs selected for the 1995-96 HES, one PSU in Dhaka Statistical Metropolitan Area (SMA) could not be visited by the field teams. As a result, a total of 371 PSUs were covered in the 1995-96 HES (119 in urban and 252 in rural areas), where a total of 7,420 households were interviewed.
Note: See distribution of sample PSUs by division in the Summary report which is attached in this documentation.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics
Estimates of Sampling Error
Estimates of standard errors for poverty measures derived from the survey such as the head-count rate, the poverty gap, and the squared poverty gap (national + divisional estimates) are computed and published. Refer to Technical Documents ( SUMMARY REPORT OF THE HOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE SURVEY 1995-96, pages 55 to 57).
Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics
Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics
The dataset has been anonymized and is available as a Public Use Dataset. It is accessible to all for statistical and research purposes only, under the following terms and conditions:
1. The data and other materials will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.
2. The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
3. No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.
4. No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, or among data from the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
5. Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset.
6. An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics.
The original collector of the data, the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, and the relevant funding agencies bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. Bangladesh Household Expenditure Survey 1995-1996. Dataset downloaded from http://www.bbs.gov.bd on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.