Institute for Strategic Studies and Prognoses (ISSP) in Montenegro has undertaken several household surveys in an effort to provide timely and relevant data that is useful for policy makers and analysts. While data constraints have limited the ability to evaluate poverty and living standards in recent years, new household surveys collected by ISSP in 2002, 2003 and 2004 allow baselines to be established in regards to the living standards of the Montenegrin population and against which we can monitor changes in the future. Furthermore, with these data on household living standards, analysis can evaluate the role of social policies in supporting the poor as well as the potential impact of major policy reforms.
The ISSP surveys drew attention, once again, to the need for accurately measuring household living conditions according to well accepted standards, and for monitoring these trends on a regular basis. These surveys have provided the country with an invaluable training ground towards the development of a permanent household survey system to support the government strategic planning in its fight against poverty.
The 2004 Montenegro Household Survey covered the following topics:
- Household Identification Particulars
- Housing and Durable Goods
- Household Demographic Characteristics
- Employment (for household member aged 15 and above)
- Main Job
- Secondary Job
- People Not Working
- Social Assistance in Cash
- Other Household Income Sources
- Family Material Support
- Child Allowance Programme
- Legal Obligation to Support Someone
- Other social programmes
- Transfers in Cash
- Transfers in Kind
- Other Income
- Selling Assets
- Household Consumption Expenditure
- Food Consumption (last 7 days)
- Non-food Expenditures (monthly/ annual)
- General Perception of Environmental Quality
- Fuelwood Consumption
- Non-Wood Forest Products
- Garbage Disposal
- Flood Damage
Producers and sponsors
Institute for Strategic Studies and Prognoses (ISSP)
Republic of Montenegro
The World Bank
The 2004 Household Survey consists of a sample of about 1,000 households interviewed in all municipalities. Of these, 600 households are considered to be the Core Sample. In addition there are two booster samples (200 households each).
The Republic of Montenegro is divided geographically into 3 regions and into 21 municipalities which are, in turn, divided into settlements. Since the last census in Montenegro was undertaken in November 2003, the data were not fully available to be utilized for all stages of sample design. The preliminary results from the Census were used to compute the population share of each of the 21 municipalities in the total population. In turn, these population shares were used identify the target number of households for the Core sample.
In order to create a sample listing of households for each municipality and given the limited availability of the current Census data, the ISSP team had to look beyond the Census data. The research team identified two possible sources for developing the sample frame. The first is the Voting Registration list. The second source is the Mass Voucher Privatization (MVP) listing of all people compiled in order to distribute vouchers among the population of citizens over 18 years in the summer of 2001. Both lists exclude IDPs (which includes the Roma population in its definition). At the time when sampling was done, the MVP list was newer than the voting registration list. ISSP concluded that these two lists were fairly comparable. In addition, list of the households paying the bill to the Electricity Company was available as well, but with double entries included due to the almost 60,000 of weekend houses registered in Montenegro.
The MVP list was used to randomly list Core sample households such that the sample proportion in each municipality was equal to the overall population proportions. Households were interviewed based on this random sampling list for the municipality, with no clustering design in the sample within municipality, thereby reducing survey design effects which increase standard errors. The exception for this procedure was for Roma and displaced persons. The sample of Roma and displaced households in the Core sample were listed based on additional data sources (Roma NGOs and UNHCR list of displaced persons) since they are missing from the MVP. Roma and displaced persons in the Core sample listing are from Podgorica only since the largest share of these populations live in the central part of Montenegro (68% of Roma and 36% of displaced persons).
Of the Core sample of 600 households, 93% (559) are resident households, 3% (18) are Roma and 4% (23) are displaced households.
In addition to the Core sample, the 2004 Household Survey sample included two booster samples. A booster sample of 200 households was created in 3 municipalities defined as areas with certain ecological problems: Pljevlja (70), Mojkovac (60), and Zeta Valley (70). In order to have enough vulnerable and poor families for analytical purposes, the second booster sample of another 200 households was created from the listing of Family Material Support (FMS) program.
Because of the booster samples, the HHS 2004 sample is not self-weighted. In order to obtain correct estimates the data need to be weighted. Different weights were assigned to the households in each of the 21 regions and based on FMS status (receiving assistance from FMS or not). Each household is assigned one of the 42 weights.
Note: The weights are presented in Annex Table 1 of 2004 HHS Basic Information Document.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Upon developing the target number of households to be interviewed, interviewers were then dispersed to their respective municipality to interview households. Subsequent to receiving the actual listing of MVP registrants, within each municipality, a random set of individuals whose households should be interviewed was pulled from the listing using a computer program. This random list was then assigned to interviewers in each municipality. In addition to the list of target sample households, interviewers were given a random list of replacement households in the event of non-response (due to refusal, poor address information, or migration of the household).
The data is collected in face-to-face interviewers by a core set of interviewers, about 36, who are in most cases from the municipality in which they work. Given that ISSP retain a large share of interviewers, the majority of interviewers now have considerable experience in fielding the questionnaire. For approaching Roma community, Roma interviewers were hired. The field work lasted about 2-3 weeks starting from May 4 till May 22, 2004.
The questionnaire was field tested in mid April 2004 in Podgorica, Bijelo Polje and Kotor by the core ISSP team and the local teams. The pilot testing covered all sections. The pilot was done by three teams, one per region. The north team tested the agricultural/environment module, the south team the employment module, and the team in central part the labor and health module including remaining parts (food and non-food consumption, and household roster). The questionnaire was then updated following the results of the testing.
The interviewer training began on April 15 and finished on April 18, and it took place in Podgorica, capital of Montenegro. Training was organized with three days of classroom training and one day of hands-on fieldwork practice. Both the classroom training and the fieldwork practice served also as pilot tests for the questionnaires that were revised as the training proceeded.
Approximately 40 people took part in the training. The training also covered logistics, and the plans for the fieldwork, including lists of the households, and instructions on visiting households. The supervisors received an additional 30 minute specific training session each day, plus and extra day of training shortly before the beginning of the survey work in the field on May 4.
Teams of interviewers have been created per municipality. Each team had one supervisor and, generally, three to eight interviewers. The supervisors were all chosen from permanent ISSP staff, and almost all had experience in supervising surveys on the field.
The monitoring of the entire fieldwork process was ensured by the core team in Podgorica, maintaining constant contact with the supervisors by telephone, tracking the progress and keeping apprised of any problems, and traveling to the field as necessary.
The fact that ISSP has good reputation in Montenegro and has been engaged in data collection on households in last 3 years, in addition to the staff of well-trained interviewers, resulted in low rate of refusal. Less then 5% of approached households refused to participate in this exercise.
The 2004 Household Survey by ISSP consists of a detailed household questionnaire. The questionnaire is divided into several modules. These modules were aimed at matching as much as possible the specificity of Montenegro in terms of data needs, as driven by pressing policy questions. Their design (e.g. questions asked, their sequence, units and time-frames used) was adapted to fit the Montenegro reality. The questions covered in the 2004 survey were revised from the previous rounds with considerable input from policy-makers and analysts concerned with living standards measurement in Montenegro.
The questionnaire was divided in eight sections based on the topics covered, and was administered to households in one visit.
Data entry (DE) program was developed to facilitate the data entry process. The data entry program was developed using Microsoft Access software. Technical support of the World Bank was provided in order to develop ISSP capacities in this area. Among the useful features of the DE program which allowed for prompt and accurate entry were:
a) The data entry form page was identical with the questionnaire page, which facilities data entry.
b) Range checks for most variables where appropriate.
c) Skip rules. The cursor of data entry jumps to the necessary box depending on the entered value of the previous variable.
Training for the data entry operators ran from May 25 to May 30, 2004.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.