National Sample Survey 2004-2005 (61st round) - Schedule 10 - Employment and Unemployment
Labor Force Survey [hh/lfs]
The National Sample Survey (NSS) was set up by the Government of India in 1950 to collect socio-economic data employing scientific sampling methods. The 61st round (July 2004-June 2005) of NSS was earmarked for survey on 'Household Consumer Expenditure' and 'Employment and Unemployment'. The survey on 'household consumer expenditure' and 'employment and unemployment' is the seventh in the series of quinquennial surveys on the subjects, the last one being conducted in the 55th round (1999-2000) of NSS.
The first quinquennial survey on employment - unemployment, carried out by the NSSO in the 27th round (September 1972 - October 1973), made a marked departure from the earlier employment surveys of NSSO in procedure and content. The concepts and procedures followed in this survey were primarily based on the recommendations of the 'Expert Committee on Unemployment Estimates' (1970). Since then, the five successive quinquennial surveys conducted in the 32nd, 38th, 43rd, 50th and 55th rounds have, more or less, followed an identical approach in the measurement of employment and unemployment. The basic approach in all these five quinquennial surveys have been the collection of data to generate the estimates of employment and unemployment according to the 'usual status' based on a reference period of one year, the 'current weekly status' based on a reference period of one week, and the 'current daily status' based on each day of the seven days preceding the date of survey. In order to reveal the multi-dimensional aspects of the employment-unemployment situation in India, information on several correlates were also gathered in these surveys. Sets of probing questions on some of these aspects have also been one of the basic features of these surveys. The seventh quinquennial survey on employment-unemployment is to be carried out along with the surveys on household consumer expenditure during the 61st round survey operations (July 2004 - June 2005) of the NSSO.
A Working Group was set up for the purpose of finalising the survey methodology and schedules of enquiry of the 61st round. Considering all the aspects of current data demand and usefulness of the survey results, the Group has suggested a few improvisations, additions and deletions in the content of the schedule of enquiry for the present survey. The major changes made in the schedule for employment and unemployment survey vis-à-vis the previous quinquennial survey are given below:
a) In the earlier rounds, a person, whose usual principal status was determined on the basis of the major time criteria, was considered as engaged in subsidiary economic activities if he/she had pursued economic activities for a relatively 'shorter time'. Though, in this definition of subsidiary economic activity, quantification of the duration of 'shorter time' was not done, nevertheless, had implicit hint that the 'shorter time' is not insignificant. The Working Group has now decided that a minimum of 30 days work in the subsidiary capacity, during the last 365 days, will be required for a person to be considered as having subsidiary economic activity.
b) Instead of recording the details for two usual subsidiary economic activities of all the members of the household, as was done in the 55th round, the details of only one usual subsidiary economic activity pursued for relatively more time will be recorded, when there is more than one subsidiary economic activity.
c) In the previous rounds, separate activity status code (code 96) was assigned for the 'beggars, prostitutes'. In the current round, no separate activity status code will be assigned to 'beggar, prostitutes', instead 'beggars, prostitutes' will be included in activity status 'others' (code 97).
d) Activity situation of a person will be judged irrespective of whether the production of goods and services have been carried out in the form of smuggling or not.
e) Certain probing questions to collect information on informal employment will be asked to all the workers, whether engaged in the usual principal status or in the subsidiary status, engaged in non-agricultural sector as well as in the agricultural sector as covered in the Economic Census 1998, i.e., excluding growing of crops, market gardening, horticulture (industry group 011 of NIC -98) and growing of crops combined with farming of animals (industry group 013 of NIC -98) of the agricultural sector.
f) To assess the quality of employment in terms of earning, two probing questions will be asked to those employed in self-employment status. These are 'do you regard the current earning from the self-employment as remunerative?' and 'what amount (Rs) per month would you regard as remunerative?'
g) For persons of age 15 to 29 years, information on 'whether receiving/received any vocational training' will be collected. Further, among those who have received or are receiving 'formal vocational training', information on 'source from where degree/diploma/certificate received', 'duration of training' and 'field of training' will be collected.
h) Information on 'voluntary participation without remuneration in production of goods and services' will be collected for those members of the household who are not workers, considering both principal and subsidiary status, as per existing production boundary followed by in the employment and unemployment survey of NSSO.
i) Instead of collecting information on skill, information on 'seeking or available or suitable for the type of occupation' will be collected for persons of age below 75 years who are either unemployed or are out of labour force in the usual principal status.
j) Separate industry codes are to be given for renting of building for residential and non-residential purposes.
k) As in the 55th round, information on current attendance in educational institution will be collected in this round for persons of age below 30 years. Besides, for those who are currently attending any educational institution, information on 'type of institution' will be collected.
l) In the 55th round, to get data on participation of persons in specified activities probing questions were put to females usually engaged in household chores while in the current round these questions will be asked to all the members of the household usually engaged in household chores.
m) Information on 'period of seeking/availability for work during the last 365 days' will be collected for all the persons of age 5 years and above. In the earlier quinquennial rounds, this information was collected for those who were unemployed in the usual principal status.
n) Migration particulars of the members of the sample household, which were collected in the 55th round, would not be collected in the current round.
The 61st round of the Nationbal Sample Survey was conducted during July, 2004 to June, 2005. The survey was spread over 7,999 villages and 4,602 urban blocks covering 1,24,680 households (79,306 in rural areas and 45,374 in urban areas) and enumerating 6,02,833 persons (3,98,025 in rural areas and 2,04,808 in urban areas). Employment and unemployment were measured with three different approaches, viz. usual status with a reference period of one year, current weekly status with one week reference period and current daily status based on the daily activity pursued during each day of the reference week. Unless otherwise stated, ‘all’ usual status workers will mean all workers taking into consideration the usual principal and subsidiary status taken together.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Stata version of the ASCII dataset published by the NSSO and the Computer Centter
Employment and unemployment
The survey covered the whole of the Indian Union except (i) Leh (Ladakh) and Kargil districts of Jammu & Kashmir, (ii) interior villages of Nagaland situated beyond five kilometres of the bus route and (iii) villages in Andaman and Nicobar Islands which remain inaccessible throughout the year.
Producers and sponsors
National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO)
Government of India, MOSPi
Outline of sample design: A stratified multi-stage design has been adopted for the 61st round survey. The first stage units (FSU) are the 2001 census villages in the rural sector and Urban Frame Survey (UFS) blocks in the urban sector. The ultimate stage units (USU) are households in both the sectors. In the case of large villages/blocks requiring hamlet-group (hg)/sub-block (sb) formation, one intermediate stage is the selection of two hgs/sbs from each FSU.
Sampling Frame for First Stage Units: For the rural sector, the list of 2001 census villages (panchayat wards for Kerala) constitutes the sampling frame. For the urban sector, the list of latest available Urban Frame Survey (UFS) blocks has been considered as the sampling frame.
Stratification: Within each district of a State/UT, two basic strata have been formed: i) rural stratum comprising of all rural areas of the district and (ii) urban stratum comprising of all the urban areas of the district. However, if there are one or more towns with population 10 lakhs or more as per population census 2001 in a district, each of them will also form a separate basic stratum and the remaining urban areas of the district will be considered as another basic stratum. There are 27 towns with population 10 lakhs or more at all-India level as per census 2001.
- Rural sector: If 'r' be the sample size allocated for a rural stratum, the number of sub-strata formed is 'r/2'. The villages within a district as per frame have been first arranged in ascending order of population. Then sub-strata 1 to 'r/2' have been demarcated in such a way that each sub-stratum comprises a group of villages of the arranged frame and has more or less equal population.
- Urban sector: If 'u' be the sample size for a urban stratum, 'u/2' number of sub-strata have been formed. The towns within a district, except those with population 10 lakhs or more, have been first arranged in ascending order of population. Next, UFS blocks of each town have been arranged by IV unit no. × block no. in ascending order. From this arranged frame of UFS blocks of all the towns, 'u/2' number of sub-strata has been formed in such a way that each sub-stratum has more or less equal number of UFS blocks.
For towns with population 10 lakhs or more, the urban blocks have been first arranged by IV unit no. × block no. in ascending order. Then 'u/2' number of sub-strata has been formed in such a way that each sub-stratum has more or less equal number of blocks.
Total sample size (FSUs): 12784 FSUs have been allocated at all-India level on the basis of investigator strength in different States/UTs for central sample and 14992 for state sample.
Allocation of total sample to States and UTs: The total number of sample FSUs is allocated to the States and UTs in proportion to population as per census 2001 subject to the availability of investigators ensuring more or less uniform work-load.
Allocation of State/UT level sample to rural and urban sectors: State/UT level sample size is allocated between two sectors in proportion to population as per census 2001 with 1.5 weightage to urban sector subject to the restriction that urban sample size for bigger states like Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu etc. should not exceed the rural sample size. A minimum of 8 FSUs has been allocated to each state/UT separately for rural and urban areas.
Allocation to strata: Within each sector of a State/UT, the respective sample size is allocated to the different strata in proportion to the stratum population as per census 2001. Allocations at stratum level have been adjusted to a multiple of 4 with a minimum sample size of 4.
Selection of FSUs: Two FSUs have been selected from each sub-stratum of a district of rural sector with Probability Proportional to Size With Replacement (PPSWR), size being the population as per Population Census 2001. For urban sector, two FSUs have been selected from each sub-stratum by using Simple Random Sampling Without Replacement (SRSWOR). Within each sub-stratum, samples have been drawn in the form of two independent sub-samples in both the rural and urban sectors.
Selection of hamlet-groups/sub-blocks/households - important steps
Criterion for hamlet-group/sub-block formation: Large villages/blocks having approximate present population of 1200 or more will be divided into a suitable number (say, D) of 'hamlet-groups' in the rural sector and 'sub-blocks' in the urban sector as stated below.
approximate present population of the sample village/block / no. of hgs/sbs to be formed (D)
less than 1200 (no hamlet-groups/sub-blocks): 1
1200 to 1799: 3
1800 to 2399: 4
2400 to 2999: 5
3000 to 3599: 6
…..and so on
For rural areas of Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim and Poonch, Rajouri, Udhampur, Doda districts of Jammu and Kashmir and Idukki district of Kerala, the number of hamlet-groups formed is as follows.
approximate present population of the sample village / no. of hgs to be formed
less than 600 (no hamlet-groups): 1
600 to 899: 3
900 to 1199: 4
1200 to 1499: 5
…..and so on
Two hamlet-groups/sub-blocks are selected from a large village/UFS block wherever hamlet-groups/sub-blocks have been formed, by SRSWOR. Listing and selection of the households are done independently in the two selected hamlet-groups/sub-blocks. In case hamlet-groups/sub-blocks are to be formed in the sample FSU, the same would be done by more or less equalizing population.
Formation of Second Stage Strata and allocation of households
For both Schedule 1.0 and Schedule 10, households listed in the selected village/block/ hamlet-groups/sub-blocks are stratified into three second stage strata (SSS) as given below.
Rural: The three second-stage-strata (SSS) in the rural sector are formed in the following order:
SSS 1: relatively affluent households
SSS 2: from the remaining households, households having principal earning from non- agricultural activity
SSS 3: other households
Urban: In the urban sector, the three second-stage strata (SSS) are formed as under:
Two cut-off points, say 'A' and 'B', based on MPCE of NSS 55th round, have been determined at NSS Region level in such a way that top 10% of households have MPCE more than 'A' and bottom 30% have MPCE less than 'B'. Then three second-stage-strata (SSS) are formed in the urban sector in the following order:
SSS 1: households with MPCE more than A (i.e. MPCE > A)
SSS 2: households with MPCE equal to or less than A but equal to or more than B ( i.e. B = MPCE = A)
SSS 3: households with MPCE less than B (i.e. MPCE < B)
The number of households to be surveyed in each FSU is 10 for each of the schedules 1.0 and 10. C
Selection of households for Schedules 1.0 and 10: From each SSS the sample households for both the schedules are selected by SRSWOR. If a household is selected both for schedule 1.0 and schedule 10, only schedule 1.0 would be canvassed in that household and the sample household for schedule 10 would be replaced by next household in the frame for schedule 10.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
The period of survey was of one year duration starting on 1st July 2004 and ending on 30th June 2005. The survey period of this round are divided into four sub-rounds of three months duration each as follows:
sub-round 1 :July - September 2004
sub-round 2 : October - December 2004
sub-round 3 : January - March 2005
sub-round 4 : April - June 2005
In each of these four sub-rounds equal number of sample villages/blocks (FSUs) have been allotted for survey with a view to ensuring uniform spread of sample FSUs over the entire survey period. Each of the FSUs is surveyed during the sub-round to which it has been allotted. Because of the arduous field conditions, this restriction need not be strictly enforced in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, rural areas of Arunachal Pradesh and Nagaland.
In the present round, Schedule 10 on employment-unemployment consists of 16 blocks.
The first three blocks, viz. Blocks 0, 1 and 2, are used to record identification of sample households and particulars of field operations, as is the common practice in usual NSS rounds. Similarly, the last two blocks, viz., Blocks 10 & 11, are again the usual blocks to record the remarks of investigator and comments by supervisory officer(s), respectively. Block 3 will be for recording the household characteristics like household size, religion, social group, land possessed and cultivated, monthly per capita consumer expenditure, etc., and Block 3.1 for recording particulars of indebtedness of rural labour households.
Block 4 is used for recording the demographic particulars and attendance in educational institutions of all the household members. Particulars of vocational training receiving/received by the household members will also be collected in block 4.
In Block 5.1, particulars of usual principal activity of all the household members will be recorded along with some particulars of the enterprises in which the usual status workers (excluding those in crop and plantation activities) are engaged. Information on informal employment will also be collected in block 5.1. Similarly, the particulars of one subsidiary economic activity of the household members along with some particulars of the enterprises and informal employment in their subsidiary activity will be recorded in Block 5.2. The daily time disposition for the seven days preceding the date of survey along with the corresponding activity particulars will be recorded for each household member in Block 5.3.
Besides this, the CWS will be derived from the daily time disposition data and will be recorded in this block. As in the past, wage and salary earnings and mode of payment will also be collected for regular salaried/wage employee and for the casual labours in this block.
Block 6 will be used to record the responses to the probing questions to the persons who were unemployed on all the seven days of the reference week.
Blocks 7.1 and 7.2 contains the probing questions which are related to the under-utilisation of labour time and labour mobility, respectively.
For the members of the household classified as engaged in 'domestic duties' as per their usual principal status, some follow-up questions have been framed and listed in Block 8, with a view to collecting some additional information which might explain as to whether their usual attachment to domestic duties was voluntary or involuntary and also to throw light on their participation in some specified activities for family gain.
A worksheet to obtain the total monthly household consumer expenditure has been provided in Block 9.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.