The issue of food security has continual national importance in Ethiopia. To achieve social and political stability, the government has to be able to create and maintain food security by issuing an appropriate agricultural policy. Agricultural statistics is just one element that enters into this policy process to formulae, monitor, assess and evaluate the policy. The collection of reliable, comprehensive and timely data on agriculture is thus essential for the above purpose. In this regard, the Central Statistical Agency (CSA) has exerted effort to provide policy makers and users with reliable and timely agricultural data. The general objective of CSA's annual Agricultural Sample Survey (AgSS) is to collect basic quantitative information on the country's agricultural that is considered essential for development planning, socio-economic policy formulation, food security, etc. The AgSS is composed of four components: Crop production forecast survey, Main (“Mehe”) season survey. Livestock survey and survey of the “Belg” season crop area and production.
The specific objectives of the Main (“Meher”) season area and production survey are:
- To estimate the total cultivated land area, production and yield per hectare of major crops (temporary).
- To estimate the total farm inputs applied area and quantity of inputs applied by type for major temporary and permanent crops.
- To estimate the total land used for various purposes by type of land use and the number of agricultural households, holders, members of agricultural households, average household size, average land holding per household and others
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Agricultural household/ Holder/ Crop
The scope of Agricultural Sample Survey includes:
- Area identification and characteristics of agricultural holder's. This included household's geographic locations, holder's age, holder's sex and educational status.
- List of fields and agricultural practices for pure stand and mixed crops.
- List of permanent crops and number of tress.
- Records of quantity of improved seed, fertilizers and information on crop protection.
- Records of results of area measurements.
- List and selection of fields for crop cutting and details of record of crop cutting.
The survey covered all sedentary rural agricultural population in all regions of the country except urban and nomadic areas which were not included in the survey.
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistical Authority
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Government of Ethiopia
The 1999-2000 (1992 E.C) Meher seasons annual Agricultural Sample Survey covered the rural part of the country except two zones in Afar region and six zones in Somali region that are predominantly nomadic. A two-stage stratified sample design was used to select the samples. Each zones/special wereda was adopted as stratum for which major findings of the survey are reported except the four regions; namely, Gambella, Harari, Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa which were considered as strata/reporting levels. The primary sampling units (PSUs) were enumeration area (EAs) and agricultural households were the secondary sampling units. The survey questionnaires were administered to all agricultural holders within the sample households. A fixed number of sample EAs were determined for each stratum/reporting level based on precision of major estimates and cost considerations. Within each stratum EAs were selected using probability proportional to size; size being total number of households in the EAs as obtained from the 1994 Population and Housing Census. From each sample EA, 40 agricultural households were systematically selected for the annual agricultural sample survey from a fresh list of households prepared at the beginning of the field work of the annual agricultural survey. Of the forty agricultural households, the first twenty five were used for obtaining information on area under crops. Meher and Belg season production of crops, land use, agricultural practices, crop damage, and quantity of agricultural inputs used. It is important to note that of the total forty agricultural households sampled in each of the selected EAs, data on crop cutting were collected for only the fifteen households (11th - 25th household selected).
A total of 1,450 EAs (2.9% of the total EAs in the rural areas of the county) were selected for the survey. However 5 EAs were closed for various reasons beyond the control of the Authority and the survey succeeded in covering 1445 (99.7 %) EAs. With respect to ultimate sampling units, for the Meher season agricultural sample survey, it was planned to cover 36,250 agricultural households. The response rate was found to be 98.5%.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
All the 22 branch statistical offices of the CSA participated in the survey undertaking, especially in organizing the second stage training, in deploying the field staffs to their respective sites of assignment, in supervising the data collection, and retrieving completed questionnaires and submitting them to the head office for data processing. They were also responsible in administering the financial and logical aspect of the survey within their areas of assignment. In the data collection of the survey, a total of 1559 enumerators and 331 field supervisors were involved with an average supervisor-enumerators ratio of 1 to 5. To accomplish the data collection operation, all the enumerators were supplied with the necessary survey equipment at the completion of the training. To assist the data collection activities in deployment, supervision and retrieval of completed questionnaires, a total of 123 four-wheel vehicles were used.
Training of Field Staff:
The field staff training program was carried out in two stages. The first stage consisted of training of staff form the head office, branch statistical office heads and senior field supervisors. This training was given for a period of one week at CSA's headquarters in Addis Ababa. Many of these personnel trained in the first stage were assigned to conduct similar training for field supervisors and enumerators for fifteen days in all the twenty-two CSA branch statistical offices which are distributed all over the country. During this second stage of training, the field staff were given detailed classroom instruction on the objectives and uses of the AgSS, concepts and definitions of terms used, the method of area measurements, method of crop cutting, correct interviewing procedures, etc. The training of the enumerators and supervisors also included field practice to reinforce the undertaking of the concepts, definitions and theories discussed in the classroom with regard to field measurement and crop cutting methods.
Method of Data Collection:
In the 1999-2000 AgSS data on area and production were recorded on questionnaires using both subjective and objective enumeration methods. Information on agricultural practices (application of pesticides and use of irrigation) were collected subjectively by interviewing the holders and data on area under crops, yield, and application of fertilizers and use of seeds were collected by performing objective measurements in each sampled household. The objective measurement procedures for area measurement were carried out for the twenty-five selected agricultural households from each sampled EA. This required that all separate fields by land area utilization be physically measured using compass and measuring tape. In addition, for all fields under temporary crops of each holder of the last fifteen sampled households, each was classified by type of crop and for selected major crops, a field was randomly selected for each crop for crop cutting to be performed. Crop cutting procedures consist of demarcation of a sixteen square meter plot randomly located in the selected field for which the crop in the field is to be harvested. Following the field enumerator's harvest of the crop-cutting plot and threshing, the crop is stored in bags with identification information (i.e. name of the crop, holder's number and parcel and field numbers). The crop placed in the bag is weighed immediately (green weight) after threshing, and weighted again after two weeks of drying to simulate normal holder harvesting and drying practices. The green and dry weights are recoded on the respective forms.
Central Statistical Authority
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
The 1999-2000 annual Agricultural Sample Survey used structured questionnaires to collect agricultural information from selected sample households.
List of forms in the questionnaires:
- AgSS Form 92/0: Used to list all agricultural households and holders in the sample enumeration areas.
- AgSS Form 92/1: Used to list selected households and agricultural holders in the sample enumeration areas.
- AgSS Form 92/2: Used to collect information about crop condition.
- AgSS Form 92/3A: Used to list fields and agricultural practices only pure stand temporary and permanent crops, list of fields and agricultural practices for mixed crops, other land use, quantity of improved and local seeds by type of crop and type and quantity of crop protection chemicals.
- AgSS Form 92/4A: Used to collect results of area measurement.
- AgSS Form 92/5: Used to list fields for selecting fields for crop cuttings and collect information about details of crop cutting.
- AgSS Form 92/6: Used to collect information about cattle by sex, age and purpose
Editing, Coding and Verification:
In order to insure the quality of the collected survey data an editing, coding and verification instruction manual was prepared and printed. Then 35 editors-coders and 20 verifiers were trained for two days in the editing, coding and verification operation using the aforementioned manual as a reference and teaching aid. The completed questionnaires were edited, coded and later verified on a 100% basis before the questionnaires were passed over to the data entry unit. The editing, coding and verification exercise of all questionnaires was completed in about 40 days.
Data Entry Cleaning and Tabulation:
Before starting data entry, professional staff of Agricultural Statistics Department prepared edit specifications for use on personal computers utilizing the Integrated Microcomputer Processing System (IMPS) software for data consistency checking purposes. The data on the coded questionnaires were then entered into personal computers using IMPS software. The data were then checked and cleaned using the edit specifications prepared earlier for this purpose. The data entry operation involved about 35 data encoders and it took 30 days to complete the job. Finally, tabulation was done on personal computers to produce results as indicated in the tabulation plan.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Estimation procedures of totals, ratios and sampling errors are given in Appendix I of 1999-2000 annual Agricultural Sample Survey, Volume I report which is provided in this documentation.
The Central Statistical Agency (CSA) is committed to achieving excellence in the provision of timely, reliable and affordable official statistics for informed decision making in order to maximize the welfare of all Ethiopians. This is achieved through the collection and analysis of censuses, surveys and the use of administrative data as well as the dissemination a range of statistical products and providing assistance and services to users.
A microdata dissemination policy is established by CSA to address the conditions and the manner in which anonymized microdata files may be released to users for research purposes. It also strives to identify the different levels of anonymization for different categories of data use. This policy is available at CSA website (http://www.csa.gov.et).
CSA will release microdata files for use by researchers for scientific research purposes when:
The Director General is satisfied that all reasonable steps have been taken to prevent the identification of individual respondents.
The release of the data will substantially enhance the analytic value of the data that have been collected For all but purely public files, researchers disclose the nature and objectives of their intended research, It can be demonstrated that there are no credible alternative sources for these data, and
The researchers have signed an appropriate undertaking.
Terms and conditions of use of public data files are the following:
The data and other materials provided by CSA will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of CSA.
The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the CSA.
No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by CSA, or among data from the CSA and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from CSA will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset.
An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to CSA.
The original collector of the data, CSA, and the relevant funding agencies bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
Cost Recovery Policy:
It is the policy of CSA to encourage broad use of its products by making them affordable for users. Accordingly, CSA attempts to ensure that the costs of creating anonymized microdata files are built-in to the survey budget.
At the same time, CSA attempts to recover costs associated with the provisions of special services that benefit only a specific group. Information on the price of each dataset is available at CSA website (http://www.csa.gov.et )