Food security has become a burring issue in Ethiopia since it is an absolute prerequisite for political and social stability. It received national prominence in the aftermath of the recurring drought and famine and obviously became an immediate domestic policy concern. The gap between the dire need for food supply is compounded by rapidly increasing population, depletion of natural resources and the existing traditional way of farming. It even requires sacrifice to provide adequate supply of food in such a situation where natural and human factors have negatively impacted in the agricultural production and resulted in recurrent droughts and sometimes in catastrophe. Pressed by these problems and other economic factors, the Ethiopian government has centered its agricultural policy on ensuring food security by allocating more resources to increase agricultural production so as to ward off food shortage and ensure continuous adequate supply of food. To monitor and evaluate the performance of the policy and the trends in the charging patterns in agricultural, statistical information on agriculture is required as an input since agriculture is a primary activity connected with food availability. The Central Statistical Agency (CSA) has been generating statistical information used as inputs in the formulation of agricultural policies by collecting processing and summarizing reliable, comprehensive and timely data on the country's agriculture. As part of this mission the 2003-2004 (1996 E.C) Annual Agricultural Sample Survey was conducted to furnish data on cropland area and production of crops within the private peasant holdings for Main (“Meher”) season of the quoted year.
The general objective of CSA's annual Agricultural Sample Survey (AgSS) is to collect basic quantitative information on the country's agriculture that is essential for planning, policy formulation, food security, etc. The survey is composed of four components: Crop production forecast survey. Main (“Meher”) season survey, Livestock survey and “Belg” season survey.
The specific objectives of Main (“Meher”) season survey are:
- To estimate the total cultivated area, production and yield of crops.
- To estimate the total volume of inputs used, inputs applied area and number of holders using inputs.
- To estimate the total cultivated area and other forms of land use.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Agricultural household/ Holder/ Crop
The scope of annual Agricultural Sample Survey includes:
- Area identification and characteristics of agricultural holder's. This included household's geographic locations, holder's age, holder's sex and educational status.
- List of fields and agricultural practices for pure stand and mixed crops.
- List of permanent crops and agricultural practices.
- Information about other land use type and area and other agricultural related questions
- Records of results of area measurements.
- List and selection of fields for crop cutting and details of record of crop cutting.
The 2003-2004 annual Agricultural Sample Survey covered the entire rural parts of the country except all zones of Gambella region, and the non-sedentary population of three zones of Afar and six zones of Somali regions.
Note: The crop cutting exercise part of the survey from November 2003 up to January 2004 was not done in Gambela regional state, therefore no production estimates for the region was computed for Meher (main) season.
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistical Authority (CSA)
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Government of Ethiopia
The list containing EAs of all regions and their respective agricultural households obtained from the 2001/02 Ethiopian Agricultural Sample Enumeration (EASE) was used as the sampling frame in order to select the primary sampling units (EAs). Consequently, all sample EAs were selected from this frame based on the design proposed for the survey. Sample Design A stratified two-stage cluster sample design was used to select the sample. Enumeration Areas (EAs) were taken to be the primary sampling units (PSUs) and the secondary sampling units (SSUs) were agricultural households. Sample enumeration areas from each stratum were sub-samples of the 2001/02 (1994 E.C) Ethiopian Agricultural Sample Enumeration. They were selected using probability proportional to size systematic sampling; size being number of agricultural households obtained from the 1994 Population & Housing Census and adjusted for the sub-sampling effect. Within each sample EA a fresh list of households was prepared and 25 agricultural households from each sample EA were systematically selected at the second stage. The survey questionnaire was finally administered to the 25 agricultural households selected at the second stage. Information on area under crops and Meher season production of crops was obtained from the 25 households that were ultimately selected. It is important to note, however, that data on crop cutting were obtained only from fifteen sampled households (the 11th - 25th households selected).
The sample size for the 2003-04 agricultural sample survey was determined by taking into account both the required level of precision for the most important estimates within each domain and the amount of resources allocated to the survey. In order to reduce non- sampling errors, manageability of the survey in terms of quality and operational capability was also considered. Except Harari, Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa, where each region as a whole was taken to be the domain of estimation; each zone of a region / special wereda was adopted as a stratum for which major findings of the survey are reported.
A total of 2,072 enumeration areas were initially selected to be covered by the survey, however, due to various reasons 16 EA's were not covered and the survey was successfully carried out in 2,056 (99.23 %) EAs. As regards the ultimate sampling unit, it was planned to conduct the survey on 51,800 agricultural households and 51,300 (99.03 %) households were actually covered by the Meher season Agricultural Sample Survey.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Organization of field work:
To successfully conduct the survey a well executed fieldwork arrangement was necessary. In recognition of this, the organization of fieldwork has been entrusted to the Department of Field Operations that liaises between the Head Office and the 25 Branch Statistical Offices spread across the regions. All Branch Offices took part in the survey execution especially in recruiting the enumerators, organizing the 2nd stage training, assigning the field staff to their sites of enumeration, supervising the data collection and retrieving completed questionnaires and submitting them to the Head Office for data processing. The Branch Offices were also responsible in administering the financial and logistic aspects of the survey within their areas of operation. A total of 2154 enumerators, 442 field supervisors and 21 coordinators were involved in the data collection where on the average one supervisor was assigned to five enumeration areas for supervision of data collection. All the enumerators were supplied with the necessary survey equipment after the completion of the training to ensure the smooth operation of the survey. To facilitate the data collection activities, a total of 195 four-wheel drive vehicles were used.
Training of field staff:
The execution of a survey and quality of data acquired from the survey highly depend on the type of training given to the enumerators and supervisors and the consequent understanding of the tasks to be performed and the standard procedures to be followed by the enumerators and supervisors in the survey undertaking. The quality and completeness of data is ensured when the training meets its objective of producing responsible and fervent enumerators and supervisors. In light of this point, the training was given to the field staff in two stages. The first stage training, which took place at the Head Quarters of CSA and lasted 10 days targeted staff from the Head Office, and senior field supervisors from Branch Statistical Offices. The staff that took part in the first stage training was then assigned to conduct similar training for the enumerators and other supervisors for fifteen days in all the twenty- five Branch Statistical Offices distributed across the country. In the training the field staff was given detailed classroom instruction on how to collect data, method of area measurement, method of crop cutting, interviewing procedures, etc. The training also included field practice to reinforce the understanding of concepts, definitions and theories discussed in the classroom with regard to field measurement, crop cutting and interviewing methods.
Method of data collection:
The agricultural data for the year 2003/04 (1996 E.C) was collected from sedentary rural peasant households by interviewing the selected agricultural holders and physically measuring their fields and performing crop cutting procedures to gather data on crop yields and other items of interest. The data obtained were recorded in various forms designed for this purpose. Instruments like measuring tape; compass, kitchen balance, scientific calculators and others were used during data collection for a timely and smooth acquisition of accurate data. The procedures for measuring areas of crop fields and other fields used by the holders were performed for the 25 selected households from each sampled E.A. using measuring tapes and compasses. All fields under major temporary crops of each holder of the fifteen randomly selected households of the 25 sample households were classified by crop type and a crop field was randomly selected from each crop type for crop cutting to be performed. The crop cutting procedure consists of demarcation of a four meter by four meter plot randomly located in the selected field where the crop in the demarcated plot is to be harvested. Following the enumerator's harvest of the crop demarcated and threshing, the crop is kept in bags with identification information (i.e. holder's number, parcel and field numbers). The crop stored in the bag is weighed immediately (green weight) after threshing and weighed again after two weeks of drying to simulate normal holder harvesting and drying practices. Both the green and dry weights are recorded on the respective forms.
Central Statistical Authority of Ethiopia
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
The 2003-2004 annual Agricultural Sample Survey used structured questionnaires to collect agricultural information from selected sample households.
List of forms in the questionnaires:
- AgSS Form 96/0: Used to list all households and agricultural holders in the sample enumeration areas.
- AgSS Form 96/1: Used to list selected households and agricultural holders in the sample enumeration areas.
- AgSS Form 96/3A: Used to list fields under temporary crops and farm management practice.
- AgSS Form 96/3B: Used to list fields under permanent crops and farm management practice.
- AgSS Form 96/3C: Used to list fields under mixed crops and farm management practice.
- AgSS Form 96/3D: Used to collect information about other land use type and area and other agricultural related questions.
- AgSS Form 96/5: Used to list temporary crop fields for selecting crop fields for crop cutting.
- AgSS Form 96/6: Used to collect information about temporary crop cutting results.
Editing, Coding and Verification:
Statistical data editing plays an important role in ensuring the quality of the collected survey data. It minimizes the effects of errors introduced while collecting data in the field , hence the need for data editing, and verification. An editing, coding and verification instruction manual was perpared and reproduced. Then 65 editors-coders and verifiers were trained for two days in editing , coding and.verification using the aforementioned manual as a reference and teaching aid. The completed questionnaires were edited, coded and later verified on a 1OO % basis before the questioners were passed over to the data entry unit. The editlng, coding and verification exercise of all questionnaires took 40 days.
Data Entry, Cleaning and Tabulation:
Before data entry, the Natural resource and Agricultural Statistics Department prepared edit specification for the survey for use on personal computers for data consistency checking purposes . The data on the edited and coded questionnaires were then entered into personal computers. The data were then checked and cleaned using the edit specification prepared earlier for this purpose. The data entry operation involved about 64 data encoders and it took 50 days to finsh the job. Finally, tabulation was done on personal computers to produce statistical tables as per the tabulation plan.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Estimation procedure of totals, ratios, sampling error and the measurement of precision of estimates (CV) are given in Appendix I and II of 2003-2004 Agricultural Sample Survey, Volume I report.
As it was explained in the response rate under sampling section, the non response rate was minimal. There is no testing for bias made in this survey.
The Central Statistical Agency (CSA) is committed to achieving excellence in the provision of timely, reliable and affordable official statistics for informed decision making in order to maximize the welfare of all Ethiopians. This is achieved through the collection and analysis of censuses, surveys and the use of administrative data as well as the dissemination a range of statistical products and providing assistance and services to users.
A microdata dissemination policy is established by CSA to address the conditions and the manner in which anonymized microdata files may be released to users for research purposes. It also strives to identify the different levels of anonymization for different categories of data use. This policy is available at CSA website (http://www.csa.gov.et).
CSA will release microdata files for use by researchers for scientific research purposes when:
The Director General is satisfied that all reasonable steps have been taken to prevent the identification of individual respondents.
The release of the data will substantially enhance the analytic value of the data that have been collected For all but purely public files, researchers disclose the nature and objectives of their intended research, It can be demonstrated that there are no credible alternative sources for these data, and
The researchers have signed an appropriate undertaking.
Terms and conditions of use of public data files are the following:
The data and other materials provided by CSA will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of CSA.
The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the CSA.
No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by CSA, or among data from the CSA and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from CSA will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset.
An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to CSA.
The original collector of the data, CSA, and the relevant funding agencies bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
Cost Recovery Policy:
It is the policy of CSA to encourage broad use of its products by making them affordable for users. Accordingly, CSA attempts to ensure that the costs of creating anonymized microdata files are built-in to the survey budget.
At the same time, CSA attempts to recover costs associated with the provisions of special services that benefit only a specific group. Information on the price of each dataset is available at CSA website (http://www.csa.gov.et )