The 1991 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey is the second survey of this type conducted in Indonesia.
The 1991 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) is a nationally representative survey of ever-married women age 15-49. It was conducted between May and July 1991. The survey was designed to provide information on levels and trends of fertility, infant and child mortality, family planning and maternal and child health. The IDHS was carried out as collaboration between the Central Bureau of Statistics, the National Family Planning Coordinating Board, and the Ministry of Health. The IDHS is follow-on to the National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey conducted in 1987.
The DHS program has four general objectives:
- To provide participating countries with data and analysis useful for informed policy choices;
- To expand the international population and health database;
- To advance survey methodology; and
- To help develop in participating countries the technical skills and resources necessary to conduct demographic and health surveys.
In 1987 the National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (NICPS) was conducted in 20 of the 27 provinces in Indonesia, as part of Phase I of the DHS program. This survey did not include questions related to health since the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) had collected that information in the 1987 National Socioeconomic Household Survey (SUSENAS). The 1991 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) was conducted in all 27 provinces of Indonesia as part of Phase II of the DHS program. The IDHS received financial assistance from several sources.
The 1991 IDHS was specifically designed to meet the following objectives:
- To provide data concerning fertility, family planning, and maternal and child health that can be used by program managers, policymakers, and researchers to evaluate and improve existing programs;
- To measure changes in fertility and contraceptive prevalence rates and at the same time study factors which affect the change, such as marriage patterns, urban/rural residence, education, breastfeeding habits, and the availability of contraception;
- To measure the development and achievements of programs related to health policy, particularly those concerning the maternal and child health development program implemented through public health clinics in Indonesia.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- Children under five years
- Women age 15-49
The 1991 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey covers the following topics:
- Demographic Characteristics
- Respondent's Background
- Family Planning
- Pregnancy Breastfeeding
- Immunization and Health
- Fertility Preferences
- Husband's Background, Residence and Woman's Work
- Interview Particulars
Producers and sponsors
Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS)
National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB)
Ministry of Health
Macro International Inc.
Funding and technical assistance
United States Agency for International Development, Jakarta
United Nations Population Fund
Indonesia is divided into 27 provinces. For the implementation of its family planning program, the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (BKKBN) has divided these provinces into three regions as follows:
- Java-Bali: Jakarta, West Java, Central Java, Yogyakarta, East Java, and Bali
- Outer Java-Bali I: Aceh, North Sumatra, West Sumatra, South Sumatra, Lampung, West Kalimantan, South Kalimantan, North Sulawesi, South Sulawesi, and West Nusa Tenggara
- Outer Java-Bali II: Riau, Jambi, Bengkulu, East Nusa Tenggara, East Timor, Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, Central Sulawesi, Southeast Sulawesi, Maluku, and Irian Jaya.
The 1990 Population Census of Indonesia shows that Java-Bali contains about 62 percent of the national population, while Outer Java-Bali I contains 27 percent and Outer Java-Bali II contains 11 percent. The sample for the Indonesia DHS survey was designed to produce reliable estimates of contraceptive prevalence and several other major survey variables for each of the 27 provinces and for urban and rural areas of the three regions.
In order to accomplish this goal, approximately 1500 to 2000 households were selected in each of the provinces in Java-Bali, 1000 households in each of the ten provinces in Outer Java-Bali I, and 500 households in each of the 11 provinces in Outer Java-Bali II for a total of 28,000 households. With an average of 0.8 eligible women (ever-married women age 15-49) per selected household, the 28,000 households were expected to yield approximately 23,000 individual interviews.
Note: See detailed description of sample design in APPENDIX A of the survey report.
Of 28,141 households sampled, 27,109 were eligible to be interviewed (excluding those that were absent, vacant, or destroyed), and of these, 26,858 or 99 percent of eligible households were successfully interviewed. In the interviewed households, 23,470 eligible women were found and complete interviews were obtained with 98 percent of these women.
Note: See summarized response rates by place of residence in Table 1.2 of the survey report.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
The protest for the IDHS was held in May 1990 in three provinces Jambi, West Java, and East Nusa Tenggara (NTT). In each location, seven persons were trained to form a team consisting of one field manager, one supervisor, one field editor, and four interviewers. The Chief of the Social and Population Statistics Division in each Provincial Statistical Office (PSO) performed the function of field manager and was responsible for carrying out the pretest activities in his province. All of the interviewers in Jambi and West Java and one in NTT were drawn from the PSO staff. The pretest training lasted for two weeks.
For the pretest fieldwork, 100 individual interviews were conducted in urban and rural areas of the three provinces. During the fieldwork, several errors in the questionnaire were identified. These were mainly skip and filter errors which were easily corrected. It was also discovered that the translations of some of the questions into Bahasa Indonesia were incorrect or misleading. These translation problems were discussed among the survey organizers and corrected.
FIELD STAFF TRAINING
The training of the more than 250 field staff for the IDHS took place at nine training centers throughout Indonesia. Prior to the training of field staff for the main survey, however, a course was held in order to prepare those who were to serve as instructors at the training centers, those who were responsible for coordination of field activities at the provincial level, and data processing staff. This course took place in Bogor, West Java in April 1991 and was attended by 41 persons including provincial level staff and staff from Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) headquarters. Instructors for this course were the survey organizers who had previously conducted training for the pretest held in May 1990. The course was identical to the interviewer's training course normally given for DHS surveys, although no field practice was included. In addition, logistical and administrative matters, and issues related to sample implementation were covered.
Since the CBS was occupied with activities related to the October 1990 Census, the main fieldwork for the IDHS was scheduled to take place May-August 1991. Training for the main survey was held in May 1991 in nine locations--Medan, Palembang, Jakarta, Semarang, Surabaya, Kupang, Banjarmasin, Ujung Pandang, and Ambon. The training course lasted 15 working days and covered how to locate selected households, how to conduct interviews, and how to fill in control forms. Classroom lectures on the purpose of the questions, how to ask them, and how to record answers, were followed by mock interviews and finally by practice interviews in the field.
The IDHS data collection was carried out by 178 interviewers, 56 field supervisors, and 34 field editors. Each of the 56 teams consisted of two to four interviewers, one field editor, and one supervisor. As in the 1987 NICPS, the number of interviewers in a team was determined by the number of enumeration areas selected in the respective province, and due to the sensitive nature of the questions asked in the survey, female interviewers were used. For logistical and security reasons, all of the field supervisors were male. The teams worked together in each EA until it was completed and then moved on to the next EA. The teams used public transportation to move between sample points. Provincial statistical office staff and CBS headquarters staff made periodic visits to the field to monitor the work. Fieldwork began in May and was completed in July 1991.
The DHS model "A" questionnaire and manuals were modified to meet the requirements of measuring family planning and health program attainment, and were translated into Bahasa Indonesia.
The first stage of data editing was done by the field editors who checked the completed questionnaires for completeness and accuracy. Field supervisors also checked the questionnaires. They were then sent to the central office in Jakarta where they were edited again and open-ended questions were coded. The data were processed using 11 microcomputers and ISSA (Integrated System for Survey Analysis).
Data entry and editing were initiated almost immediately after the beginning of fieldwork. Simple range and skip errors were corrected at the data entry stage. Secondary machine editing of the data was initiated as soon as sufficient questionnaires had been entered. The objective of the secondary editing was to detect and correct, if possible, inconsistencies in the data. All of the data were entered and edited by September 1991. A brief report containing preliminary survey results was published in November 1991.
Estimates of Sampling Error
The results from sample surveys are affected by two types of errors, non-sampling error and sampling error. Non-sampling error is due to mistakes made in carrying out field activities, such as failure to locate and interview the correct household, errors in the way the questions are asked, misunderstanding on the part of either the interviewer or the respondent, data entry errors, etc. Although efforts were made during the design and implementation of the IDHS to minimize this type of error, non-sampling errors are impossible to avoid and difficult to evaluate analytically.
Sampling errors, on the other hand, can be measured statistically. The sample of women selected in the IDHS is only one of many samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and expected size. Each one would have yielded results that differed somewhat from the actual sample selected. The sampling error is a measure of the variability between all possible samples; although it is not known exactly, it can be estimated from the survey results. Sampling error is usually measured in terms of standard error of a particular statistic (mean, percentage, etc.), which is the square root of the variance. The standard error can be used to calculate confidence intervals within which one can reasonably be assured that, apart from non-sampling errors, the true value of the variable for the whole population falls. For example, for any given statistic calculated from a sample survey, the value of that same statistic as measured in 95 percent of all possible samples with the same design (and expected size) will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error of that statistic.
If the sample of women had been selected as a simple random sample, it would have been possible to use straightforward formulas for calculating sampling errors. However, the IDHS sample design depended on stratification, stages and clusters. Consequently, it was necessary to utilize more complex formulas. The computer package CLUSTERS, developed by the International Statistical Institute for the World Fertility Survey, was used to assist in computing the sampling errors with the proper statistical methodology.
Note: See detailed estimate of sampling error calculation in APPENDIX B of the survey report.
Data Quality Tables
- Household age distribution
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Completeness of reporting
- Births by calendar year since birth
- Reporting of age at death in days
- Reporting of age at death in months
Note: See detailed tables in APPENDIX C of the survey report.
Data and Data Related Resources
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Indonesia Central Bureau of Statistics, National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB), Indonesia, Ministry of Health, Indonesia, and Macro International Inc., Columbia, Maryland USA. Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 1991. Ref. IDN_1993_DHS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from www.measuredhs.com on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.