Demographic and Health Survey (standard) - DHS III
The 1997 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) is the fourth survey on demography and health in Indonesia and was conducted as part of the worldwide Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) project. The first survey was the 1987 National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (NICPS), the second and third surveys were the 1991 IDHS and 1994 IDHS.
The Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS), which is part of the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Project, is one of prominent national surveys in the field of population, family planning, and health. The survey is not only important nationally for planning and evaluating population, family planning, and health developments, but is also important internationally since IDHS has been designed so uniquely that it can be compared with similar surveys in other developing countries.
The 1997 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) is a follow-on project to the 1987 National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (NICPS), the 1991 IDHS, and the 1994 IDHS. The 1997 IDHS was expanded from the 1994 survey to include a module on family welfare; however, unlike the 1994 survey, the 1997 survey no longer investigated the availability of family planning and health services. The 1997 IDHS also included as part of the household schedule a household expenditure module that provided a means of identifying the household's economic status.
The 1997 IDHS was specifically designed to meet the following objectives:
- Provide data concerning fertility, family planning, maternal and child health, maternal mortality, and awareness of AIDS that can be used by program managers, policymakers, and researchers to evaluate and improve existing programs
- Provide data about availability of family planning and health services, thereby offering an opportunity for linking women's fertility, family planning, and child care behavior with the availability of services
- Provide household expenditure data that which can be used to identify the household's economic status
- Provide data that can be used to analyze trends over time by examining many of the same fertility, mortality, and health issues that were addressed in the earlier surveys (1987 NICPS, 1991 IDHS and 1994 IDHS)
- Measure changes in fertility and contraceptive prevalence rates and at the same time study factors that affect the changes, such as marriage patterns, urban/rural residence, education, breastfeeding habits, and the availability of contraception
- Measure the development and achievements of programs related to health policy, particularly those concerning the maternal and child health development program implemented through public health clinics in Indonesia
- Provide indicators for classifying families according to their welfare status.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data
Unit of Analysis
- Children under five years
- Women age 15-49
The 1997 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey covers the following topics:
- HH Expenditure
- HIV Knowledge–Questions assess knowledge/sources of knowledge/ways to avoid HIV
- Maternal Mortality
- Reproductive Calendar
Producers and sponsors
Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS)
State Ministry of Population/National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB)
Ministry of Health
Macro International Inc.
United States Agency for International Development, Jakarta
Indonesia is divided into 27 provinces. For the implementation of its family planning program, the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB) has divided these provinces into three regions as follows:
- Java-Bali: DKI Jakarta, West Java, Central Java, DI Yogyakarta, East Java, and Bali
- Outer Java-Bali I: Dista Aceh, North Sumatra, West Sumatra, South Sumatra, Lampung, West Nusa Tenggara, West Kalimantan, South Kalimantan, North Sulawesi, and South Sulawesi
- Outer Java-Ball II: Riau, Jambi, Bengkulu, East Nusa Tenggara, East Timor, Central Kalimantan, East Kalimantan, Central Sulawesi, Southeast Sulawesi, Maluku, and Irian Jaya
The 1990 Population Census of Indonesia shows that Java-Bali accounts for 62 percent of the national population, Outer Java-Bali I accounts for 27 percent, and Outer Java-Bali II accounts for 11 percent. The sample for the 1997 IDHS was designed to produce reliable estimates of fertility, contraceptive prevalence and other important variables for each of the provinces and urban and rural areas of the three regions.
In order to meet this objective, between 1,650 and 2,050 households were selected in each of the provinces in Java-Bali, 1,250 to 1,500 households in the ten provinces in Outer Java-Bali I, and 1,000 to 1,250 households in each of the provinces in Outer Java-Bali II, for a total of 35,500 households. With an average of O.8 ever-married women 15-49 per household, the sample was expected to yield approximately 28,000 women eligible for the individual interview.
Note: See detailed description of sample design in APPENDIX A of the survey report.
A total of 35,362 households were selected for the survey, of which 34,656 were found. Of the encountered households, 34,255 (99 percent) were successfully interviewed. In these households, 29,317 eligible women were identified, and complete interviews were obtained from 28,810 women, or 98 percent of all eligible women. The generally high response rates for both household and individual interviews were due mainly to the strict enforcement of the rule to revisit the originally selected household if no one was at home initially. No substitution for the originally selected households was allowed. Interviewers were instructed to make at least three visits in an effort to contact the household or eligible woman.
Note: See summarized response rates by place of residence in Table 1.2 of the survey report.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Since all of the survey instruments except the family welfare questionnaire were the same as those used in the 1994 IDHS, the pretest was focused on this questionnaire. Six male and four female CBS staff participated in the pretest. Two of the female staffs were from the West Java Province Statistics Office (PSO). The pretest training was conducted by CBS staff for three days in June 1997, followed by the data collection, which lasted for three days. The pretest took place in a location outside Jakarta, the capital.
For the pretest fieldwork, a total of 100 households, 121 family welfare and 44 individual women questionnaires were completed. Problems encountered during the pretest training and fieldwork was discussed among the collaborating agencies: NFPCB, CBS, and the Ministry of Health. Based on these discussions, the family welfare questionnaire was finalized. While the household expenditure schedule is a part of the Household Questionnaire, it was decided that it would be administered after the interview with the eligible women in the household had been completed. The family welfare questionnaire would be asked last.
FIELD STAFF TRAINING
Training of the survey field staff for the main survey was preceded by a course for prospective instructors of field workers, persons who were responsible for the training centers, and the data processing staff. This training was held in August 1997 in Bogor. CBS staff who participated in previous DHS surveys served as trainers.
Training for the main survey took place in nine locations spread throughout the country: Medan (North Sumatra), Palembang (South Sumatra), Jakarta (DKI Jakarta), Salatiga (Central Java), Malang (East Java), Kupang (East Nusa Tenggara), Balikpapan (East Kalimantan), and Ujung Pandang (South Sulawesi). The training lasted for 16 days. Due to variability in the availability of funds, the training did not take place simultaneously in all training centers. The training was patterned after past IDHS experiences and followed the model DHS training guidelines. Procedures for locating the sample households, conducting an interview, and filling out the forms, as well as tests, mock interviews and field practice were included in the training.
The 1997 IDHS data were collected by 284 interviewers, 86 field editors and 86 supervisors. Each of the 86 teams consisted of two to four interviewers, one field editor and one supervisor. As in previous DHS surveys, the number of teams in each province was determined by the number of segments selected in the respective province and their distribution throughout the area. Due to the sensitive nature of some questions asked in the survey, all interviewers and field editors were female. However, for logistical and security reasons, male supervisors were used. Most of the survey fieldworkers were CBS staff at the province or regency/municipality level.
The teams completed work in each segment before moving to the next segment. Generally, the teams were responsible for arranging transportation between sample areas. However, in some areas, local statistics offices provided transportation. In each province, the PSO Director was responsible for the implementation of the survey in his/her province, while the Chief of the Population and Social Statistics Division was assigned as the Technical Coordinator. During the course of data collection, PSO and CBS staff visited the field periodically to monitor the progress of the fieldwork. The main survey fieldwork began on September 1, 1997 in South Sumatra. The last segment was completed on December 31, 1997.
The 1997 IDHS used three questionnaires: the household questionnaire, the questionnaire on family welfare, and the individual questionnaire for ever-married women 15-49 years old. The general household and individual questionnaires were based on the DHS Model "A" Questionnaire, which is designed for use in countries with high contraceptive prevalence. Additions and modifications to the model questionnaire were made in order to provide detailed information specific to Indonesia. The questionnaires were developed mainly in English and were translated into Indonesian. One deviation from the standard DHS practice is the exclusion of the anthropometric measurement of young children and their mothers. A separate survey carried out by MOH provides this information.
The household questionnaire includes an expenditure schedule adapted from the core Susenas questionnaire model. Susenas is a national household survey carried out annually by CBS to collect data on various demographic and socioeconomic indicators of the population. The family welfare questionnaire was aimed at collecting indicators developed by the NFPCB to classify families according to their welfare status. Families were identified from the list of household members in the household questionnaire. The expenditure module and the family welfare questionnaire were developed in Indonesian.
The first stage of data editing was carried out by the field editors who checked the completed questionnaires for thoroughness and accuracy. Field supervisors then further examined the questionnaires. In many instances, the teams sent the questionnaires to CBS through the regency/municipality statistics offices. In these cases, no checking was done by the PSO. In other cases, Technical Coordinators are responsible for reviewing the completeness of the forms. At CBS, the questionnaires underwent another round of editing, primarily for completeness and coding of responses to open-ended questions. The data were processed using microcomputers and the DHS computer program, ISSA (Integrated System for Survey Analysis). Data entry and office editing were initiated immediately after fieldwork began. Simple range and skip errors were corrected at the data entry stage. Data processing was completed by February 1998, and the preliminary report of the survey was published in April 1998.
Estimates of Sampling Error
The estimates from a sample survey are affected by two types of errors: (I) non-sampling errors and (2) sampling errors. Non-sampling errors are the results of mistakes made in implementing data collection and data processing, such as failure to locate and interview the correct household, misunderstanding of the questions on the part of either the interviewer or the respondent, and data entry errors. Although numerous efforts were made during the implementation of the 1997 IDHS to minimize this type of error, non-sampling errors are impossible to avoid and difficult to evaluate statistically.
Sampling errors, on the other hand, can be evaluated statistically. The sample of respondents selected in the 1997 IDHS is only one of many samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and expected size. Each of these samples would yield results that differ somewhat from the results of the actual sample selected. Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between all possible samples. Although the degree of variability is not known exactly, it can be estimated from the survey results.
A sampling error is usually measured in terms of the standard error for a particular statistic (mean, percentage, etc.), which is the square root of the variance. The standard error can be used to calculate confidence intervals within which the true value for the population can reasonably be assumed to fall. For example, for any given statistic calculated from a sample survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error of that statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design.
If the sample of respondents had been selected as a simple random sample, it would have been possible to use straightforward formulas for calculating sampling errors. However, the 1997 IDHS sample is the result of a multi-stage stratified design, and, consequently, it was necessary to use more complex formulae. The computer software used to calculate sampling errors for the 1997 IDHS is the ISSA Sampling Error Module. This module used the Taylor linearization method of variance estimation for survey estimates that are means or proportions. The Jackknife repeated replication method is used for variance estimation of more complex statistics such as fertility and mortality rates.
Note: See detailed estimate of sampling error calculation in APPENDIX B of the report which is presented in this documentation.
Data Quality Tables
- Household age distribution
- Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women
- Completeness of reporting
- Births by calendar years
- Reporting of age at death in days
- Reporting of age at death in months
Note: See detailed tables in APPENDIX C of the report which is presented in this documentation.
Data and Data Related Resources
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Indonesia Central Bureau of Statistics, State Ministry of Population/National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB), Indonesia, Ministry of Health, Indonesia, and Macro International Inc., Columbia, Maryland USA. Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 1997. Ref. IDN_1997_DHS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from www.measuredhs.com on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.