Social Dimensions of Adjustment Priority Survey 1992-1993
Socio-Economic/Monitoring Survey [hh/sems]
The second Social Dimensions of Adjustment (SDA) Priority Survey took place from April to June, 1993. The survey covered the whole country on a sample basis covering 651 Standard Enumeration Areas. About 10,000 households were interviewed in total. The first survey took place from October to November, 1991 and covered 500 Standard Enumeration Areas and about 10,000 households. This survey was conducted by the Central Statistical Office and was fully funded by the Norwegian government through the World Bank.
The Social Dimensions of Adjustment (SDA) project was launched in 1987 by the World Bank with the United Nations Development Programme and the African Development Bank as partners. Many other multilateral and bilateral agencies have supported the project financially and technically in several countries of sub-saharan Africa. The survey was multi-dimensional covering a wide spectrum of topics. Thus the data collected is vast and rich allowing for indepth analysis at both national and provincial levels.
The survey results consist mainly cross tabulations of some major background variables in most of the topics investigated. Nonetheless, the results presented are by no means exhaustive. A lot more of primary data stored in the computer still remains to be fully investigated and analysed. The Central Statistical Office is committed to making available the stored data to interested users for further analysis.
The overriding aim of the SDA Priority surveys is to provide relevant statistical information on the socio-economic effects of structural adjustment policies being implemented by the government and in particular how such policies affect living standards at the household level.
The Priority survey is a household based survey but data was also collected at the individual level. The survey has two primary objectives. The first is to provide a quick identification of policy target groups. The second is to provide a mechanism, whereby key socio-economic variables can be easily and regularly produced to describe and monitor the well-being of different groups of households.
The Priority Survey places emphasis on five basic needs indicators. These are education, health, nutrition, food expenditure and housing.
Structural adjustment programs involve the implementation of a series of policy measures designed to correct imbalances in the national economy and to promote a desirable or targeted economic growth. The type of structural adjustment programs that have been carried out in Zambia include:
• Introducing market foreign exchange rates
• Liberalizing interest rates
• Privatizing state owned companies
• Liberalizing foreign trade so that domestic and international producers compete
• Liberalizing domestic trade by removal of price controls on commodities
• Removal of subsidies on consumption and production
• Reforming and restructuring the civil service
These measures and other adjustments to the national economy have impacts on the Zambian society and the Priority Survey is intended to highlight and monitor these impacts. Structural adjustments involve both fiscal and monetary reforms which seek to redress imbalances in the economy. Fiscal policy includes such issues as reduction in Government expenditure and tax reform while monetary reforms involve such issues as reducing money supply and liberalizing the interest and foreign exchange rates. In highlighting the social dimensions of adjustment attention is generally focused on the identification of the poor and most vulnerable groups in the population.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The survey covered the following topics:
- Identification Particulars Geographic identification/localization of household
- Household roster, Demography, Education
- Economic Activity for household members 7 years and above
- Housing and facilities, Housing Amenities
- Access to Facilities
- Agriculture, Holding
- Agriculture, Crop Production
- Agriculture, Vegetables
- Agriculture, Crop Production
- Business Activity Status
- Household Income
- Household Expenses
- Fixed Household Assets and Properties
- Other Household Properties
Coverage was national. The Priority survey II covered both urban and rural parts of Zambia in all the nine provinces. In all 651 Standard Enumeration Areas were selected across the country. In urban areas the same 250 Standard Enumeration Areas (SEAs) that were selected for Priority survey I were canvassed in Priority survey II. In Rural areas 401 Standard Enumeration Areas were covered based on the CSO Agriculture post harvest (1993) survey.
In urban SEAs 25 households were selected in each sample SEA. In the rural areas 10 households were selected from the 20 sample households in the 401 sample SEAs earmarked for the 1993 Agriculture survey. In all about 10,000 households were interviewed in Priority survey II.
In the Priority survey I on which the PSII sample is based, a three stage stratified random sample method was used for the survey. The first stage constituted primary sampling units (PSUs) which were Census Supervisory Areas, (CSA), delineated for the 1990 Census of Population, Housing and Agriculture. Standard Enumeration Areas (SEAs) were second stage sampling units, while households formed third-stage sampling units. The household as well as individuals formed the units of analysis. The sampling frame consisted of 4,144 CSAs and 12,999 SEAs.
The sample frame of this survey was the list of SEAs developed from the 1990 Census of Population, Housing and Agriculture. The eligible household population constisted of all civilian households. Excluded from the survey were the institutional population in (hospitals, boarding schools, prisons, hotels, refugee camps, orphanages, military camps and bases, etc) and diplomats accredited to Zambia in embassies and high commissions. However, private households living around these institutions were enumerated such as teachers whose houses are on school premises and doctors and other workers living on hospital premises.
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistical Office (CSO)
Government of Republic of Zambia
Ministry of Finance and National Planning
Government of Republic of Zambia
Norwegian Central Bureau of Statistics
Government of Republic of Zambia
Financial and Technical Assistance
National Food and Nutrition Commission
Government of Republic of Zambia
The PSII covered all the nine (9) provinces of Zambia, both rural and urban areas on a sample basis. The domains of study and data disaggregation for this survey were:-
The whole country is divided into nine provinces that are subdivided into 57 districts by the Local government Administration. Central Statistical Office has delineated the Districts into Census Supervisory Areas and then CSAs into Standard Enumeration Areas. A CSA has about three SEAs in it.The sample standard enumeration areas were selected with a probability proportional to the number of
inhabitants in each area.For urban areas stratification was done based on the main type of housing in the area. Urban households were classified into low, medium and high cost areas. In the case of rural areas stratification was done based on the scale of Agricultural activity. Rural households were classified into small scale, medium scale, large scale and non-agricultural. In PSII small scale and non-agricultural households were lumped together as one since the rural sample was a sub-sample of the sample areas selected for the
agriculture survey and that is how the agriculture survey lumped the two. The large scale agricultural households were left out of the PSII analysis because of the small number that were interviewed.
The sampling frame consisted of 4,144 CSAs and 12,999 SEAs. It was obtained from the 1990 Census of Population and Housing. The SEAs in the frame were sorted by rural/urban and by low cost, medium cost and high cost areas. All in all, the frame gives information on the population size of each SEA throughout the country, the number of households, information about rural/urban, and low cost, medium cost and high cost areas.
In all , 651 Standard Enumeration Areas were selected across the country. In urban areas the same 250 Standard Enumeration Areas (SEAs) that were selected for Priority survey I were canvassed in Priority survey II. In Rural areas 401 Standard Enumeration Areas were covered based on the CSO Agriculture post harvest (1993) survey. In urban SEAs 25 households were selected in each sample SEA. In the rural areas 10 households were selected from the 20 sample households in the 401 sample SEAs earmarked for the 1993 Agriculture survey. In all about 10,000 households were interviewed in Priority survey II. In the Priority survey I on which the PSII sample is based, a three stage stratified random sample method was used for the survey. The first stage constituted primary sampling units (PSUs) which were Census Supervisory Areas, (CSA), delineated for the 1990 Census of Population, Housing andformed third-stage sampling units. The household as well as individuals formed the units of analysis.
Sampling with probability proportional to size (PPS) was used in selecting the sample of CSAs and SEAs. In selecting CSAs and SEAs the measure of size was the cartographic mapping population estimates.
Allocation of SEAs to provinces was done using the Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) method.This means that the total sample size was proportionally allocated to each province according to the population in the province. First, allocation was done on provinces considering the population share of each province from the total population. Then allocation was done at district level in the same way. Within the districts, allocation was done by rural/urban by the same method. Within the urban strata, allocation was done by low cost, medium cost, and high cost areas using the same method. (See Appendix I).
In each selected SEA, households were listed and each household given a unique sampling serial number. A circular systematic sample of households was then selected. Vacant residential housing units and non-contact households were not assigned sampling serial numbers.
Deviations from the Sample Design
Due to logistical problems the actual number of SEAs enumerated in rural strata was 392 and 250 in urban areas.
See section 6.8 of the Data User's guide for a detailed explanation of the weighting procedure.
Dates of Data Collection
Listing and Enumeration of Households
Data Collection Mode
The following were responsible for the oversight and supervision of survey activities:
A Senior Officer from the Central Statistical Office (Head Office) was designated as Master Trainer for each of the nine Provinces with the following major functions:-
(i) To train and oversee the training of enumerators in their respective Provinces.
(ii) To oversee the whole Survey project and ensure that it succeeds.
(iii) To check that the field arrangements are operational and moving according to plan.
(iv) To participate in checking the completed forms for any discrepancies and ensure that such discrepancies are resolved.
(v) In case of refusals from the respondents, to assist the Provincial Officers, Supervisors and enumerators to convince such respondents of the importance of the Survey and thus secure their co-operation.
(vi) To administer and monitor funds for training of Enumerators.
(vii) To advise on other technical aspects of the Survey. Although only the major functions are listed here, the Master Trainers could assist the Survey Staff in other matters as well.
Provincial Statistical Officers (PSO's) had the following major responsibilities :-
(i) Training enumerators together with Master Trainers
(ii) Making accommodation, transport and other arrangements for staff involved in the field operations, in consultation with them, for both the training period and field operations. Also to liaise with the Master trainer on how to administer funds for training enumerators, i.e what and how much to buy, etc.
(iii) Generally ensuring that all administrative issues were done. For example, informing Provincial and Local authorities, about the presence of field Staff and the Survey operation itself in order to gain cooperation from the local people, mobilizing the enumerators,
solving CSA/SEA boundary problems, mobilizing materials from the Provinces (e.g. bicycles) and so on.
(iv) Wherever possible PSO's, Master Trainers, Supervisor and the appropriate enumerator were to together identify actual ground boundaries for the selected SEAs, to ensure that the enumerator is working within the boundaries of his/her allocated SEAs. They also had to take care of imaginary boundaries by measuring distances, etc to locate where they are.
(v) To help check completed questionnaires with Master trainer, and so on.
(vi) Any other issues that may came up during the field operations.
The Supervisor performed a vital function in the Survey process. Each Supervisor was responsible for the performance of the enumerators under his or her direction. The general functions of the Supervisor included:-
(i) Assisting Master Trainers and PSOs to train enumerators.
(ii) Organizing the enumerators to successfully complete their assignments; allocating areas (SEA's) showing enumerator his/her SEA boundaries on the ground, issuing Survey Forms and other equipment.
(iii) Ensuring that the work completed by the field staff met the standards of quality which were required.
(iv) Communicating with the Master trainer and PSO on a regular basis to report the status of the Survey, relay problems encountered in the field, and receive directives on Survey operations and resolutions to problems raised.
(v) Providing routine supervision with regard to administrative and personnel matters. To supervise the enumerators under him/her on a daily basis and rotating between enumerators. In total,107 supervisors underwent training and 307 enumerators underwent training. Supervisors would lead and supervise on the average 3 enumerators.
(vi) Selecting the sample of households.
(vii)Editing completed listing sheets and questionnaires for consistency, legibility, completion, etc. This Survey provided very essential data that concerns the well being of people. Appropriate policies would be developed concerning the same based on the data collected.
Data Collection Notes
Field Survey Operations
The duties of the survey staff in conducting the Priority Survey II (PSII) were :
- Ensuring effective planning and timely execution of the survey
- Developing and finalizing survey questionnaires
- Writing of enumerators’ and supervisors’ instruction manuals
- Conducting and analyzing a pretest
- Training of field staff
- Designing quality control instruments and procedures
- Preparing field materials, equipment and other logistical aspects of field work
- Supervising data-entry operators
- Tabulation, analysis, report writing and dissemination
Training of field staff took place in three phases. The first stage was the training of master trainers and provincial heads (Provincial Statistical Officers). Nine master trainers and nine provincial statistical officers were trained in Lusaka. This first phase training lasted 1 week. This was immediately followed by another week of supervisor’s training in Lusaka. The total number of supervisors were 107. The training of enumerators took place in provincial centers during a one week period. A total of 307 enumerators underwent training.
Central Statistical Office
Two basic instruments were used in collecting data during the survey: the listing form and the main questionnaire.
Training: The provincial data entry operators were trained for a week to facilitate capturing of the Priority survey data. A total of 18 data entry operators were trained.
For data entry the IMPS (Integrated Microcomputer Processing System) software designed by the U.S. Bureau of Census was used. This software contains three components; CENTRY -for data entry and verification, CONCOR - for range, skip and consistency checks in the data and CENTS - for tabulation. Only the first two (CENTRY and CONCOR) components of IMPS were used.For tabulation and analysis the SAS (Statistical Analysis System) software was used. This software was developed in the U.S.A. as well. The software has the advantage of being able to handle large amounts of data and also to compute statistical and complex tables. For typing the report, the Word Perfect software was used. For Anthropometry EPI-INFO was used.
Data entry was done in the respective nine provinces by the provincial data entry operators. Central Statistical Office has decentralised its computer data capturing process since 1991. After all the data was captured in the provinces, it was brought to the headquarters office in Lusaka as well as the questionnaires that were used in the field. The data was then merged into one for total Zambia. Thereafter, the data was converted from ASCII to a SAS data set and then tabulation and analysis was done. The provincial data entry operators were trained for a week to facilitate capturing of the Priority survey data.
Confidentiality of respondents is guaranteed under the provisions of the Census and Statistics Act, CAP 127 of the laws of Zambia.
The Director of the Central Statistical Office has to authorise access to information. Before being granted access to the dataset or any other information produced by CSO, all users have to formally agree to the following:
1. To make no copies of any files or portions of files to which s/he is granted access except those authorized by the Central statistical Office.
2. Not to use any technique in an attempt to learn the identity of any person, establishment or sampling unit not identified on public use data files
3. To hold in the strictest confidence the identification of any establishment or individual that may be inadvertently revealed in any documents or discussion or analysis. Such inadvertent identification revealed in the user's analysis will be immediately brought to the attention of the Central Statistical office.
4. The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only.
5. The data and other materials will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organisation without the written agreement of the CSO.
Central Statistical Office, Priority Survey II 1993 (PSII 1993),Version 1.1 of the public use dataset (September 2009),provided by the Central Statistical office.
Central Statistical Office (Ministry of Finance and national Planning)
All CSO products are protected by copyright. Users may apply the information as they wish, provided that they acknowledge CSO as the source of the basic data whenever they process, apply, utilize, publish or distribute the data, and also that they specify that the relevant application and analysis (where applicable) result from their own processing of the data .CSO and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.