The National Sample Census of Agriculture (NSCA), 1991/92 is the fourth decennial census of agriculture of Nepal conducted by Central Bureau of Statistics. The first had been undertaken in 1961/62. The second and third had been undertaken in 1971/72 and 1981/82, respectively. Like the previous censuses, the fourth NSCA 1991-92 covered all districts of the country.
Objectives of the National Census of Agriculture of Nepal, 1991/92
The main objective of the census of agriculture of Nepal is to publish data at district level on the following:
1. Structure and characteristics of the holding such as size, agricultural land use, land tenure, land fragmentation, area planted to crops, number of livestock, and others;
2. To provide benchmark data for improving the reliability of estimates from current agricultural survey; and,
3. To provide basic data for national, ecological belts and development regions levels for national as well as sub-national policy, planning and decision making purposes.
The National Sample Census of Agriculture,1991/92 of Nepal (NSCA 1991/92) was conducted by the Central Bureau of Statistics. The 1991/92 NSCA was undertaken in two phases. The first phase involved the complete enumeration of all agricultural holdings in the country including the area of the holding and livestock number. The enumeration of all the holdings was an integral activity of the first phase of the Census of Population 1991, which undertook the operation in June 1991. Some questions on agricultural activities were asked to identify the agricultural holding. The second phase of the 1991/92 NSCA was the selection and enumeration of sample holdings to widen the scope of the census from January to June 1992. Data on agricultural crops gathered refer to calendar year 1991 while the livestock and poultry population refers at the time of enumeration, from January to June 1992.
Kind of Data
Census/enumeration data [cen]
Unit of Analysis
Agricultural holdings and individuals
Version 01: Microdata is not available
The scope of the 1991/92 NSCA is almost the same as that in 1981/82 National Sample Census of Agriculture which adopted most of the recommendations of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in the collection of data under the following main headings:
1. Identification - Holding and holder identification.
2 Holder characteristics - Age and sex of holder; legal status of the holding; use of produce from holding; whether received agricultural loan and the source.
3. Demographic and other characteristics - Age and sex of household members. Characteristics of the farm population were gathered in the Census of Population 1991 but will be included in the NSCA 1991/92 analysis of results.
4. Employment - For agricultural labour: permanent workers by sex and employment of occasional workers. Economic activities of the members of the household of the holder were not taken in the agriculture census because these were already covered in the Census of Population 1991 but will be included in the analysis of results of the 1991/92 NCA.
5. Land and water - For holding as a whole: number of parcels; area; type of land; irrigated land, source of irrigation; etc. For each parcel: area; type of land; type of soil, color of soil; irrigated; area rented from others; whether rented out land; land use (whether arable, land under temporary crops, temporary meadow, temporary fallow; land under permanent crops; permanent meadows and pasture; pond; woodland/forest; and land not elsewhere classified) land tenure; and part of holding made uncultivable due to flooding and/or soil erosion during the reference year.
6. Crops - Temporary crops: name of crops grown and area harvested on each parcel. Permanent crops: name of crops grown for each parcel; number of trees of productive and non-productive ages in compact plantations; and number of scattered trees. Use of agricultural inputs for major crops: type of seed; fertilizers, organic and inorganic: area and quantity of inorganic (chemical) fertilizer used; pesticides; use of irrigation and high yielding varieties of seeds; cropping patterns for each parcel, whether pure stand, mixed crop, or associated crop.
7. Livestock - Animal numbers by type according to age and sex; poultry numbers: chicken classified by sex and for female, whether laying eggs or not.
8. Machinery and equipment - Use of items of agricultural machinery and equipment; number of items; and source (owned by holder, common, landlord, or others).
9. Buildings and other structures - Whether non-residential buildings used for agricultural purposes; tenure and type of these buildings.
10. Ancillary activities on the holding - Existence of forest trees and fisheries on the holding; number of forest trees; type and area of fishing installation.
National Urban and rural areas Ecological belt Develovement Region District
Holdings having area under crops less than 0.01355 ga (8 dhurs) in Terai or 0.01272 hs (4 anas) in Hilly and Mountains region, but raising at least 2 productive animals or 20 poultry birds are included in the category "Holding without land".
Agricultural activities undertaken by government organizations, businesses like corporations and other juridical persons were not covered by the NSCA, 1991/92.
Producers and sponsors
Central Bureau of Statistics
National Planning Commission Secretariat
United Nations Development Program
Financial and technical assistance in training, computer equipment and tecnical personnel to assist the CBS to formulate project, sample desigh and for data processing in undertaking the the census.
Food and Agruculture Organization
His Majesty's Government
United Nations Development Program
Financial support for sample design, training and data processing.
A. Complete Enumeration of Holdings, Area and Livestock
The census methodology in undertaking the 1991/92 National Sample Census of Agriculture of Nepal is a combination of complete enumeration and sampling.
The Census of Agriculture was implemented in two phases. The first phase was the complete enumeration of all holdings, their area and the number of livestock and poultry raised by all households in the country as an integral activity in the listing operations of the Census of Population 1991. Two questions were asked concerning agricultural activities of households, namely: total area of the agriculture holding and total number of livestock/poultry kept by the households. All households listed in the Population Census 1991 that possessed the characteristics of the holding as defined in the agriculture census were identified as agricultural holdings. These holdings and their corresponding areas and number of livestock kept including their household population were compiled by ward for all the 75 districts of Nepal from which the sampling frame was constructed.
B. Sampling Design
A two-stage stratified sampling was employed in the selection of the samples for enumeration to obtain the characteristics of the holdings for the NSCA 1991. This design is similar to that of the 1981/82 sampling design, which is a self-weighting sample.
Construction of the sampling frame
The listing of the wards in each district with the summarized data of the number of holdings and area was used to form enumeration areas (EA's). However, wards containing less than 30 holdings were combined to form one EA. The EAs in each district were stratified according to the number of holdings enumerated, arranged from the highest to the lowest.
Selection of samples
The basic sampling methodology used was two stage area sampling as below:
First stage : selection of a stratified sample of enumeration areas (EAs) with probability proportional to expected number of holdings (stratified PPS sampling). i.e. the first stages of sample selection involved the primary sampling units (PSUs), where sample enumeration areas (EAs) were selected with probability proportional to size (PPS). The measure of size is the number of holdings enumerated in the EAs during the Census of Population 1991 listing operations.
To measure the importance of each district, the total area under 8 major crops was determined (paddy, wheat, maize, millet, barley, sugarcane, oilseed and potato). Districts were stratified into four groups according to this criterion. Group I represented the 10 least important districts; Group II, the next 15 important districts and Group III, the next 25 important districts and Group IV, the 25 most important districts. The number of selected EAs per district in each group follows:
Group I - 50 EAs per district (total of 450 EAs because one district, specifically Manang district was taken as a certainty sample district)
Group II - 60 EAs per district (total of 900 EAs)
Group III - 70 EAs per district (total of 1,750 EAs)
Group IV - 80 EAs per district (total of 2000 EAs).
Second stage : within selected EAs, the selection of a sample of agricultural holdings using stratified systematic random sampling. That is, the second stage of sample selection involved the selection of sample holdings systematically in each sample EA. Before the sample selection was done, a listing of holdings in each sample PSU was conducted to update the listing during the Population Census. The target number of holdings for enumeration in each sample EA was 25.
Altogether, 5,100 enumeration areas were selected from the 74 districts. The final sample of holdings for the country was about 122,000. A complete enumeration of all holdings was carried out in Manang District.
The details of the sampling procedures and the estimation of parameters for each district are found in the RELIABILITY OF DATA, which is one of the series of reports prepared for reliability of NSCA 1991/92.
The Census of Agriculture sample was designed to be self-weighting within each district, i.e. all holdings within a district have the same chance of being included in the sample.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
There were two types of supervisors. First is the central supervisor and the other is field Supervisors. Central supervisors are from Central Bureau of Statistics and Branch Statistics Office (BSO) whereas the field supervisors are from BSO and districts government offices as well as in contract.
Field Supervisors supervised day to day work of enumerators. One supervisor controls 4 enumerators. Supervisors supervised daily works of the enumerators and selected Secondary Sampling Unit (SSU) from selected EAs after listing all Agricultural households of selected wards. District Officers and Supervisors supervise the field work intensively. In addition to this central supervision were also frequently done.
Data Collection Notes
The pilot survey was conducted one year before the agriculture census 1991/92.
For the Agricultural Census, training for district officer and supervisor were held in centre and training for the field supervisors and enumerators are held in districts at the beginning of the field work.
On an average one and quarter hour was taken for filling the questionnaire i.e. schedule. Nepali National language was used for conducting interview.
Central Bureau of Statistics
National Planning Commission Secretariat
The questionnaires for the National Sample Census of Agriculture were structured questionnaires based on FAO recommendation with some modifications and additions and it was written in Nepali language. The main questionnaire was Schedule-2 which contains the following topics:
Part 0: Identification Information
Part 1: Information on Holder and respondent
Part 2: General Information
Part 3: Description of Population
Part 4: Description for Land and Water
Part 5: Crops
Part 6: Livestock and Poultry
Part 7: Agriculture Machinery by Source and Use
Part 8: Non-Residential Building
Part 9: Forest and Fishery
Part 10: Agricultural Loan
The total area of the holding was reported in the district where the holder resides, regardless of the physical location of the parcels comprising the holding. Although in Nepal a holding is usually equivalent to the household and it is very rare where a household operates a holding where some parcels are located in other districts.
The data were subjected to the following editing process:
1) Editing and coding were done manually at the head office after collecting the filled questionnaires
2) Completeness check after data entry done by a completeness checking computer program
3) Machine editing
Estimates of Sampling Error
Sampling errors were calculated for a selection of census estimates. These can be used as a guide to levels of sampling error for the other estimates. Programs written in CLIPPER 5.01 were used to calculate standard errors for the following items:
1. Total area of holdings;
2. Area under temporary crops;
3. Area under paddy;
4. Area under maize;
5. Area under wheat;
6. Area of irrigated land;
7. Number of cattle;
8. Number of buffaloes;
9. Number of chickens; and
10. farm population.
Sampling errors are discussed in detail in the RELIABILITY OF DATA report.
Data quality of NSCA 1991/92 was further assessed by comparing the its results with the previous series of agriculture census data (NSCA1981/82) and data of population census 1991. See RELIABILITY OF DATA report for more details.
Director: Publication, Distribution and Library Section
Confidentiality of the respondents is guaranteed by Article 8 of Statistics Act 1958 which states "Any information or details relating to any person, family, firm or company, which has been supplied, obtained or prepared pursuant to section 3, section 4, section 5, section 6, section 7, or any part of such information or details, shall not be disclosed or published directly except to the Director General or to any officer of the Bureau without the written person or of his authorised representative supplying such information or details"
OBLIGATION: All persons living in the country are obliged by law to provide the data requested in the questionnaire.
The dataset has been anonymized and is available as a Public Use Dataset. It is accessible to all users for statistical and research purposes only, under the following terms and conditions:
1. The data and other materials will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS).
2. The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
3. No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the CBS.
4. No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by the CBS or among data from the CBS and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
5. Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from the CBS will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset.
6. An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to the CBS.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), Nepal. National Sample Census of Agriculture 1991/92. Ref. NPL_1991_AgC_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [source] on [date].
The Central Bureau of Statistics, Nepal bears no responsibility for any outcomes or for interpretations or inferences arising from the use of the dataset.
DDI Document ID
Central Bureau of Statisics
Accelerated Data Program
International Household Survey Network
Editing for IHSN Survey Catalog
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 1.0 - Central Bureau of Statistics - Original documentation of the study.
Version 2.0 - edited version by ADP based on Version 1.0 of CBS downloaded from http://cbs.gov.np/nada/index.php/catalog on 8 March 2013.
Notes on changes made:
Title: Changed year format.
Abbreviation: Changed year format.
Geographic Coverage: Placed entries in separate lines; added urban and rural areas; info on agricultural landholding inclusions and exclusions delted since it is already provided in universe.
Universe: Deleted firs paragraph since info is alread povided in unit of analysis.
Primary Investigator: Changed Affiliation.
Response Rates: Deleted entry.
Data Editing: Revised item 3.
Estimates of Sampling Error: Revised entry.
Other Forms of Data Appraisal: Rephrased entry.
Access Authority: Edited URI.
Access Conditions: Added IHSN sample Access Conditions.
Citation Requirement: Edited to follow IHSN recommended format but component on download details not added because data is not available.
Contact Persons: Edited URI.
External Resources: Added DDI in PDF; merged parts of Analysis of Results into one file; merged parts Reliability of Data into one file.
[External Resources] Title: Revised for most resources.
[External Resources] Author(s): Added '(CBS)' for all resources.
[External Resources: Analysis of Results] Date: Added.
[External Resources] Publisher: Added ',Nepal' for some resources.
[External Resources: Analysis of Results] Date: Added.
[External Resources: Analysis of Results] Country: Added.
[External Resources: Analysis of Results and Reliability of Data] Language: Added.
[External Resources: Analysis of Results and Reliability of Data] Format: Changed.
[External Resources: Analysis of Results] Description: Added.
[External Resources: Analysis of Results] Table of Contents: Added.