In order to monitor the success of the various Social Action Program (SAP) initiatives, data is needed to help identify the beneficiaries of the programme, and the extent to which increased investment in the social sectors actually results in improved service access and welfare outcomes. It was for this purpose that the series of PIHS surveys was launched. Round I (1995/96) was completed in October 1996. The 1996-97 PIHS is the second round of the project.
The Pakistan Integrated Household Survey (PIHS), a national sample survey, that provide household and community level data which can be used to monitor, evaluate, and assess the impact of Social Action Program (SAP). An important objective of the PIHS is to try and establish what the distributional impact of SAP has been. Policymakers need to know, for example, whether the poor have benefited from the programme or whether increased government expenditure on the social sectors has been captured by the better-off. In order to do this, a measure of living standards is needed so that benefits from public investment in social services can be compared across different income groups. For this purpose, PIHS includes a measure of household consumption (expenditure on goods and services) against which many of the outcome variables are tabulated. In Round I, the number of items in the consumption module was limited and provided the basis for only a crude measure of household consumption. In Round II, the consumption module has been expanded and refined so that the consumption measure used in report will be more reliable measure of household welfare than Round I.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The 1996-1997 Pakistan Integrated Household Survey included the following topics:
Sources of income
Pre and post-natal care
Men's marriage history
Food expenses and home production
Producers and sponsors
Federal Bureau of Statistics
Government of Pakistan
The sample size of the 1996-97 PIHS survey was fixed by the Federal Bureau of Statistics (FBS) at a level high enough to allow most estimates to be obtained for each province and region (urban/rural). In addition, for key variables, the aim of the sampling strategy was to provide estimates with confidence intervals of plus or minus 5 per cent. In the case of the 1991 PIHS, however, the sample size for the survey was considerably smaller than that for the 1995-96 and 1996-97 PIHS surveys.
A two-stage random sampling strategy was adopted for the 1995-96 and 1996-97 PIHS surveys. At the first sampling stage, a number of clusters or Primary Sampling Units (PSUs) were selected from different parts of the country. Enumerators then compiled lists of all households residing in the selected PSUs. At the second sampling stage, these lists were subsequently used to select a fixed number of households from each PSU for interviews using a systematic sampling procedure with a random start. This two-stage sampling strategy was used in order to reduce survey costs, and to improve the efficiency of the sample. The number of PSUs to be drawn from each strata in the first stage was fixed so as to ensure that there were enough observations to allow representative statistics to be derived for each main strata of interest.
Use of this particular sampling procedure means that households residing in different parts of the country have been selected for the PIHS surveys with differing probabilities of selection. In order to derive representative statistics for each of the provinces, as well as for the country as a whole, raising factors (i.e. sampling weights) have been applied to the 1991, 1995-96 and 1996-97 PIHS data sets. These raising factors take into account the sampling strategy adopted in both of these surveys, and result in data for different households being weighted by a factor that is inversely proportional to their probability of selection in the sample.
Under this second round of the PIHS, data was collected from some 12,622 households living in 905 different primary sampling units (PSUs) selected throughout the Punjab, Sindh, NWFP, and Baluchistan (see Table 1.2). The data was collected between July 1996 and June 1997, apart from NWFP where the enumeration was completed in October 1997. All households were therefore not enumerated at the same time of the year. The survey is also being implemented in Azad Jammu and Kashmir, FATA, and FANA, the results of which will be presented in a later report.
In each of the selected PSUs, a fixed number of households were selected at random (12 in each urban PSU, 16 in each rural PSU), and a detailed household questionnaire was administered to each of them. In addition, in each PSU, a community questionnaire was also completed which gathered information on the quality of infrastructure, the provision of services, and consumer prices prevailing in the community.
Before moving on to discuss questionnaire content, two issues are worth elaborating with respect to PIHS sampling in Round II: sample size and household selection. With respect to sample size, it was recognised after Round I that the rural Baluchistan sample was too small to make accurate estimates of key variables. Accordingly, the number of Baluchistan rural households was increased from 950 in Round I to 1,111 in Round II. Regarding household selection, in Round II of the PIHS the enumeration team sought to re-interview two-thirds of the households from Round I, and replace one-third with new households. If the original household from Round I could not be found then they were not replaced. The enumeration teams were successful in locating almost all the original households from Round I.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
At the individual and household level, the PIHS collects information on a wide range of topics using an integrated questionnaire. The household questionnaire comprises a number of different modules, each of which looks at a particular aspect of household behaviour or welfare. Data collected under Round II included educational attainment and health status of all household members. In addition, information was also sought on the maternity history and family planning practices of all eligible household members. Finally, data was also collected on the household's consumption of goods and services in the last fortnight / month / year, as well as on housing conditions and access to basic services and amenities.
The modules used for Round II differed slightly from those used in Round I. The main changes in the questionnaire included: dropping the sections on vocational education and parental attitudes to education; dropping the sections in the health module covering other illnesses and injuries, and disabilities; revising the consumption module substantially; and including new sections on pre- and post-natal care, and maternal mortality. In addition, many individual questions were revised in several of the sections. Where this has been done, an explanation is provided in the notes under each table.
As the maternity history and family planning sections of the PIHS questionnaire were deemed too sensitive for male interviewers to administer directly to women, female interviewers were included in each of the field teams. This allowed the household questionnaire to be split into two parts. One part was administered to male members 10 years and older and the other to all female members. Children under 10 years were covered in the female questionnaire. Barring exceptional circumstances where individuals were not at home or unable to answer for themselves, all individual level information was obtained directly from each household member.
Data was also collected through the community questionnaire on the quality of infrastructure in the PSU, as well as the range of publicly and privately provided services (education, health, family planning, and water supply and sanitation) in the community. Information was also collected in the community questionnaire on each government health facility and primary school in the PSU. This part included questions on staffing at the facility, the quality of infrastructure, as well as the utilisation of services by members of the community.
PIHS data collected at the household and community level in each PSU provides a very rich source of data. It can be used to assess some of the dimensions of household welfare in different parts of the country, as well as to identify the main beneficiaries of different government policies and programmes.
Federal Bureau of Statistics
Statistics Division, Government of Pakistan
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Pakistan Federal Bureau of Statistics. Integrated Household Survey (IHS) 1996-1997. Ref. PAK_1996_IHS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
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