This is the first Kyrgyz Poverty Monitoring Survey (KMPS).
A Multipurpose Poverty Survey (KMPS) was conducted in October and November 1993 with a sample of about 2,000 households and 10,000 members of those households. The 1993 KMPS survey was designed to be a nationally representative survey of living standards in the Kyrgyz Republic during the second half of 1993. After the 1993 KMPS, a Social Safety Net (SSN) project was launched in the Kyrgyz Republic. This SSN project had a Poverty Monitoring Component (PMC) which includes conducting an annual Kyrgyz Poverty Monitoring Survey (KPMS) for four years, 1996-1999. The task of conducting these surveys and overall coordination of project activities was given to the National Statistical Committee (NATSTATCOM) of the Kyrgyz Republic with technical assistance from Research Triangle Institute (RTI) based in the United States.
The first KPMS data collection was completed during the months of February and March (Spring) 1996 using the same survey questionnaires as the 1993 survey. After that NATSTATCOM decided that survey data would be collected during the Fall season and as a result the remaining KPMS were carried out during the months of October and November (Fall) of 1996, 1997 and 1998.
The questionnaires used in KPMS were more or less similar. The Fall 1996 (second) KPMS added an Employment Module on the household questionnaire used earlier (Spring 1996). The 1997 (third) KPMS added questions on Family Planning to the Female Health Module. The 1998 (Fourth) KPMS used a similar questionnaire to that of the 1997, but with an extended agricultural module.
The main purpose of these surveys is to provide data for the study of multiple aspects of household welfare and behavior, analysis of poverty, and understanding the effect of government policies on households.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
This section collects basic demographic data such as name, age, sex, relation to the household head, legal ethnicity, marital status of each member, and education level and other information of parents of each member as well as information on children not currently living in the household.
This section collects information on the type of dwelling the household lives in, number of rooms, ownership, construction, and access to services such as electricity and water, toilets, etc. It also collects information on dwelling expenditures such as payments for electricity, telephone, trash collection, heating and water supply. This part of the questionnaire is to be answered by the head of the household or a well informed principal respondent.
This section collects daycare (pre-school child care) information for children 6 years old and younger and education information on all members 7 years or older. Questions include educational attainment and expenditures including the number of years of study, highest diploma or certificate obtained as well as subject area of specialization. In this section, parents provide the information for pre-school children and those 7 to 13 years old. Children 14 years and older answer the questions by themselves. The section also collects information on training courses for household members who are 14 years and older.
This section collects information on chronic illness and disability, recent illness or injury for each household member. It also includes information on the health status of each member of the household, and smoking and drinking habits of the household members. Parents respond on behalf of children 13 years of age and under. Part 'C' of this section in 1996 KPMS asks questions on dental and eye related problems, whether the person wears glasses or a hearing aid, etc. For the 1997 and 1998 KPMS, this part is replaced by questions on hospitalization.
EMPLOYMENT AND INCOMES:
This section collects information on whether any adult member of the household has been out of work and searching for employment, his/her former place of work, sector and position of employment. For members who are still working, the information collected includes the sector of employment, number of days worked, salary, subsidies received, place of work, distance, union availability, etc. It also includes information on whether any member is involved in a secondary job or activity, and if so, similar information for that secondary job or activity as for the primary job. Other information collected in this section includes old age pension, disability pension, etc. In the 1996 KPMS, this section of the questionnaire included a sub section on privatization which collects information such as whether the household received privatization coupons and, if received, the value of such coupons, what was done with the coupons as well as the main way that privatization changed the life of the household. This sub-section was not included in the 1997 and 1998 KPMS questionnaires.
This section collects information about nationality, place of birth, whether the place of birth is a capital, oblast or rayon center or a rural village, reason for coming to the present place of residence, whether the member is registered to live and work in the current place of residence, whether he/she has ever been any where else for more than 3 months.
RESPONDENTS FOR ROUND TWO:
This section collects information that identifies the principal respondent/s who will be interviewed when the interviewer revisits the household two weeks from the date of the first interview. The information collected includes whether any member of the household worked as an independent farmer or on the household‘s leased land raising crops or animals such as poultry, cattle, sheep, pigs, etc. The different trades, businesses, services, or professions owned or operated by members of the household; who in the household knows most about other expenses, income and savings of household members.
FAMILY PLANNING AND FEMALE HEALTH:
This section collects information from up to three female household members who are between 15-49 years of age. The information was collected using a form which women either fill out on their own (or with a help from somebody if the person cannot read or write). The information collected is about women‘s health issues such as having children and family planning including whether she has ever been pregnant, number of live births she has had, number of children who died and date of each death, whether each child has been inoculated against disease, assistance from nurse, doctor or midwife at birth, place of child's birth and child‘s weight at birth, abortion, miscarriage, as well as the various methods of birth spacing. The 1997 and 1998 KPMS questionnaires have added additional questions in this section such as age when the woman had her first period, number of children her parents had and her opinion about family planning.
This section collects information about type of land the household works on, number of hectares of each type, selling and leasing value of the land, main source of irrigation for each type, etc. Types of crops grown during the past 12 months (if any), amount kept as seed, amount sold, lost due to insects/ rodents/fire/spoilage, consumed by household, amount put in storage, etc.; investment on young plants, amount and cost of mineral fertilizers used, spending on various kinds of paid labor such as clearing land, plowing, renting farm animals, irrigation charges, fuels, land taxes, livestock taxes etc. The section also collected information on food products from crops grown by the household, livestock, poultry, bees or other animals, household made products obtained from animals raised by the household, veterinary services, livestock expenditures such as feed, hired labor for herding, packaging of animal/poultry products, hand instruments and other farming equipment. The 1996 KPMS questionnaire also collects some information on agricultural credit (which is not included in the 1997 and 1998 KPMS questionnaires). The 1998 extended agricultural module included additional questions such as whether the land used by the household is private property or rented, amount of rented land in hectares, if any, and the size of land used for purposes of vegetable allotment, orchards and vineyards, herding, buildings, etc.
NON-FARM SELF EMPLOYMENT:
This section collects information on the trades, business, production, professional services and other self-employed activities of the members of the household including working conditions, assets owned by each business, types of expenditures made by each business during the past 12 months as well as revenues generated by each business.
FOOD EXPENDITURE AND HOME FOOD CONSUMPTION:
This section collected detailed information on the type, amount and value of food items purchased for consumption in the house during the past 12 months; place where these items are bought, amount the household spent on each item of consumption since the last visit to the household by the interviewer (i.e. last two weeks). It also collects information about meals or snacks purchased and eaten outside of the home or drinks outside of home by member/s of the household since the last visit to the household by the interviewer.
EXPENDITURES AND DURABLE GOODS:
This section collects data on the various details of two-week and annual expenditures from the most informed respondent/s of the household. It includes the various expenditures by items made by each individual member of the household and the sum of such itemized expenditures at a household level independently for the past two weeks as well as the past 12 months. Also included are information on losses such as non-disbursement from banks, theft, bad investment and loans not being repaid; ownership of durable goods such as gas or electric stove, refrigerator, automatic washing machine, car, radio, camera, motorcycle, personal computer and television. Possession of real estate assets other than the current dwelling, type and value of the assets as well as expenditures for remittances are also included in this section.
INCOME RECEIVED FROM RELATIVES AND OTHER SOURCES:
This section collects information on whether any member of the household received money or goods from persons who are not members of the household such as assistance sent by relatives working elsewhere or by children of household members as well as income from inheritance, payments from insurance, dowry, dividends, alimony income, lottery winnings, aid from NGOs, dividends and interest earned.
LOANS AND SAVINGS:
This section collects information on any loans made by members of the household to other people such as friends, neighbors, relatives, etc. as well as loans on which members of the household made payments, values of loans and borrowings, types of bank accounts owned by any member of the household as well as household savings.
This section collects information for all children in the household aged 5 and under on the household card. The information includes height, waist, size of upper arm and hips (in centimeters) and weight (in kilos)
POPULATION POINT QUESTIONNAIRE
This section collects information such as the number of population, the approximate area of the population point (cluster) as well as the major ethnic groups in the cluster.
INFRASTRUCTURE OF POPULATION POINT:
This section collects information on housing, whether the population point is a capital, oblast center, rayon or town, availability of facilities such as hot water supply and centralized garbage collection system, etc. It also includes information on transport and communication such as types and quality of roads, circulation of newspapers, distance to the capital - Bishkek, etc.
This section collects information about the major economic activities in the population point and the most serious economic problem of the people in the region, percentage of the population engaged in individual economic activities, etc.
REFUGEES AND DISPLACED PERSONS:
This section collects information on refugees and displaced persons that reside in the population point, where they live, whether they are provided with financial assistance, food, free medical service and the like in the population, and the most serious problem they face.
This section collects information on the portion of the school-age children in the population point that attend school, the most serious school problem, and the general quality of teaching at schools in each region, etc.
This section collects information about the quality of health services, where most people in the population go for medical assistance, portion of children age 5 and under that have been vaccinated, and availability of most frequently used medications (such as antibiotics) at drug stores in the population point.
This section collects information about the people that are engaged in agricultural activities, the major agricultural activity in the population point, portion of agricultural products grown on irrigated land, average salary of a person engaged in different activities in the sector, etc.
This section collects information on the availability of various types of institutions in the population point such as post office, police, fire brigade, etc. as well as distance and time it takes from the center of the population point to the nearest of these institutions.
This section collects item by item information and prices for each of the various products available in the population point if they are bought from shops, kiosks, and market.
Producers and sponsors
National Statistical Committee (NATSTATCOM)
The World Bank
Research Triangle Institute
In order to expedite the survey process, NATSTATCOM used much of the same sample design and survey instruments as those used for the 1993 Baseline Survey. However, the Fall 1996-1998 KPMS surveys used a new sampling frame based on the Kyrgyz Household Registration System. This system was taken from the Census Posts intended for use by the first National Census of the Kyrgyz Republic. Using this system, NATSTATCOM updated the central household registration files effective January 1, 1996, and the information that was used for the sampling frame was as up to date as possible. The procedures followed in the stratification and identification of Primary Sampling Units (PSUs) were similar for all rounds of the KPMS as discussed below.
Formation of Strata
Initially the country was divided into seven (7) strata defined by oblasts (Oblasts are administrative divisions of the country which in turn are sub-divided in to Rayons) and by residence location (i.e. urban vs. rural) within oblasts. The rural portion of Bishkek oblast was combined with the rural portion of neighboring Chui oblast for stratification purposes as Bishkek has practically no rural population.
Selection of PSUs and Households
A total of 198 PSUs were identified for the whole of the Kyrgyz Republic of which 138 were in urban and 60 were in rural areas. The total number of households in the Kyrgyz Republic, as of January 1996, was about 1.1 million of which about 442,000 were classified as urban. It was initially targeted to select clusters of 6 responding households from each urban PSU and 20 responding households from each rural PSU (which would give us a total of 138*6 + 60*20=2,028 sample households). It was initially assumed that a 90 percent response rate would be attainable (though given the higher response rates obtained in the prior surveys, it could even be higher). The overall adjusted sampling rate was set at 1/500. It was then concluded that this overall sampling rate, combined with the projected response rate of somewhat above 0.90 would yield a sample size of close to 2,000 respondent households.
Once the strata and PSUs were formed and identified, selection of sample PSUs and households was then carried out in the following order:
1) Selection of large and small towns12
[Note: For the 1998 KPMS, large towns were defined as those with a population size of 41,125 or larger. Small towns are those with population less than 41,125. This number, according to a NATSTATCOM document was calculated as follows: n=4.7*350*25. This calculation was based on an estimated household size of 4.7, an estimated interval rate of 350 and an average work load per interviewer of 25 households. No further information is available regarding the bases of such an assumption. At the moment, we do not have information about the cut off number that separates large towns from small ones for the other two KPMS.]
2) Selection of Census Posts in urban areas
3) Selection of Ayil Kenshes (village authorities) and population points in rural areas, and
4) Selection of households from selected Census Posts and Ayil Kenshes.
In the rural stratum of each oblast, villages were used as the listing units and within these listing units, equal probability sampling methods were used to select the ultimate sampling units (households).
In urban areas, the centralized computer listings from various sources of household registration were used for the selection of households. These lists are categorized into four:
Type 1 - Private house resident households listed by BTIs
Type 2 - Public house residents listed with other organizations with dormitories only
Type 3 - Public and private households listed by JSKs
Type 4 - Public and private households listed by all other organizations.
In some cases, private households were included in the last three public categories (Types 2, 3 and 4). However, only public households were selected from these types since it was believed that any private households listed in these category types were also included in the Type 1 category. The counts for Type 2, 3, and 4 lists were then adjusted based on the oblast estimates of all urban households.13 Prior to actual household sample selection, lists from types 2 to 4 were updated and adjusted to remove private households, so that any potential double eligibility was eliminated. Urban strata were then formed within each oblast based on type of household listing. In most cases, types had to be combined to form strata of a reasonable size.
Within the limits of rounding and requiring at least one sampling unit per stratum, the allocation of sampling units to urban strata was proportional to the number of households projected for that stratum after allowing for removal of duplicates (private households appearing on a BTI and other lists).
As for rural households, selection of urban households was done using systematic random sampling within each stratum except that more subdividing of urban lists was required before selecting the final list sample that defines each sampling unit.
Even though the list sources were identified and sampled using data as of January 1, 1996 (and using projections of unduplicated counts in some cases), the final listings were updated in the field just prior to the survey period. Therefore, the sample households in selected areas were drawn from the most current available listings.
Total Sample Households Selected: 2,193
Minus households found to be vacant: - 128
Minus households found to be demolished or uninhabitable: - 18
Minus households found to be used for commercial purposes: - 4
Minus households found to be ineligible for other reasons: - 8
Total Sample Households Eligible for Interview: 2,035
Minus households that refused to be interviewed (2.7%): - 56
Minus households that were unable to be contacted (1.0%): - 20
Minus households that did not respond for other reasons (0.4%): - 8
Total Households That Completed an Interview (95.9%): 1,951
Response rates were examined during the 1996 KPMS period to see if differential response rates for different strata might justify unequal weighting to reduce any potential bias during data analysis. the differences in response rates among strata were small, as the rates range from 0.905 to 1.000. The overall response rate was high (0.959) and, as expected, the response rate for rural strata was slightly greater than the one for urban strata. Under these circumstances, weight adjustment for nonresponse appears optional. For most analyses, it was believed that it would have little impact and would unnecessarily complicate the analysis. No such weighting adjustment was therefore done for all the KPMS surveys.
In analyzing the KPMS datasets, there are two weighting variables that should be used to extrapolate results nationally. These variables are 'Weight' and 'Expansion Factor' and are included in the consumption/expenditure aggregates of the 1997 and 1998 KPMS datasets. The 1996 expenditure aggregate does not have these variables, but average comparative weighting factors can be derived using the inverse of the sampling rate. Weight is a variable derived as a product of household size multiplied by the expansion factor and it is used for household level variables. Expansion factor is a variable that is used for individual level variables.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Quality control procedures set forth and utilized by the interviewers included: careful use of sample household location procedures, detailed household member identification and selection for interview procedures, instructions on how to organize household survey materials, instructions on how to appropriately fill the questionnaires, instructions on correction of mistakes, if any, prior to data entry, and documentation of the "incentive payments to the family?16. Quality control procedures set forth for the field supervisors included: review of all cluster materials prior to assigning them to each interviewer, strict control over the activities of a small group of interviewers (3 to 5 interviewers per field supervisor), weekly updates and meetings with each interviewer, verification of 20% of the work of each interviewer via field visits to selected households, and final accounting for and review of all data from each interviewer prior to data entry.
Extensive field survey records were maintained about interviewer assignments, interview questionnaires distributed and utilized, money provided for transportation expenses and incentive payments to participating families. These records were discussed with each oblast coordinator and his/her field supervisors on a weekly basis by telephone or via personal visits to each oblast by a central office staff member.
Data Collection Notes
SURVEY MANAGEMENT AND PREPARATIONS
Conducting the Kyrgyz Poverty Monitoring Surveys (KPMS) and the overall coordination of project related activities were mandates of the NATSTATCOM. Research Triangle Institute (RTI) of the United States was contracted to provide technical assistance to NATSTATCOM in relation to most of the KPMS activities.
Once the final schedule for the KPMS surveys had been established by NATSTATCOM, a number of early survey preparations were done. These included the finalization of the statistical sampling design, the creation of survey training manuals, finalization of survey field forms and instruments, and the planning for and selection of appropriate staff to assist with the surveys, both from within the Central NATSTATCOM and from the oblast (regional) statistical offices.
Representatives of various ministries who made up the users' group were provided with draft copies of both the Household and Population Point Questionnaires in each round of the KPMS. The group members provided insights to the various modules of the questionnaires based on their sectoral knowledge.
Training manuals and field forms were created for the proper administration of the KPMS surveys. Final translations of the survey instruments into Russian and Kyrgyz were completed and the instruments printed. Field Supervisor and Field Interviewer Manuals were also prepared. Two copies of the final sample cluster household listings were given to each oblast office so that the oblast coordinators and field supervisors would have their own copies.
To properly staff the survey field operations within each oblast, the number of clusters expected from each oblast and the number of households expected from each cluster were calculated and this information was also given to the oblast coordinators. With assistance from the survey team, the oblast coordinators identified the proper locations of clusters within their oblasts for field supervisors and field interviewers. Supervisors and interviewers were assigned on a full-time basis for the whole period of data collection. Generally these supervisors and interviewers were NATSTATCOM oblast employees and this was a key to the success of the survey operations. By having supervisors and interviewers who already reported to the oblast coordinator (or NATSTATCOM Chairman) in their regular jobs, the chain of command was already established, well understood and adhered to.
Other preparations for the survey included the identification and procurement of appropriate anthropometric equipments. These included scales (for weighing sample household family members) and measuring tapes (for measuring the upper arms, waist and hips of the members). Although the anthropometric procedures were simple, care was taken in the preparation of proper instructions that clearly define these procedures.
A Data Entry Operator's Manual was also prepared. This manual provided full instructions for entering the data, quality control measures to be taken and preparation of the final data files to be taken to the NATSTATCOM central office.
TRAINING OF SURVEY STAFF
Training was given to field staff at several levels sequentially in the following order: central office staff, oblast coordinators (the NATSTATCOM chairman in each oblast), field supervisors, and field interviewers. The appropriate training materials were also developed. The training schedules for KPMS 1996 and 1998 were as follows:
1) Central NATSTATCOM staff training (in Bishkek) -- This training took place between October 26 and November 1, 1996 for KPMS 1996 and between September 10 to 15, 1998 for the 1998 KPMS.
2) Oblast Coordinators and Field Supervisors from all oblasts (in Bishkek) -- This took place between November 4 and 10, 1996 for KPMS 1996 and between September 19 to 24, 1998 for the 1998 KPMS.
3) Field Interviewers in each oblast (at the oblast offices) -- This took place between November 11 and 18, 1996 for KPMS 1996 and between September 27 to 31, 1998 for KPMS 1998.
The NATSTATCOM oblast coordinators (chairmen) and the field supervisors attended training both in Bishkek and in their respective oblasts. The initial training in Bishkek focused on proper survey administration, quality control and financial management.
Care was taken in training to review the procedures for locating and identifying sample households within the sample clusters selected. This training was reinforced by careful review and further explanation of the actual sample listings provided, for each cluster, to both the field supervisors and field interviewers. The importance of correct ID numbering and field quality control procedures by both interviewers and supervisors was stressed throughout the training.
On the last day of each training session, extensive consultation was done to ensure a clear understanding of the materials, and what is expected from each trainee and the procedures to be followed in conducting the interview. Survey supplies and anthropometric equipment were then distributed.
After the completion of the training for field supervisors and field interviewers, training was given to data entry staff at the NATSTATCOM central offices followed by training of the data entry staff in each oblast. The software used for the data entry was BLAISE III, a product of the Department of Statistics for the Netherlands. The data entry personnel at the central office were trained first. This was followed by training at the oblast level via visits to each oblast. Data entry training in oblasts were conducted following a few weeks of survey data collection. Thus these data entry people were able to use actual data from a backlog of completed questionnaires for their hands-on training.
The key data entry people were first trained about the overall data entry procedures for two days. They then started to enter the actual survey data while, at the same time, their work was closely supervised as a quality control measure for about two more days. Key entry personnel who had problems were retrained and brought up to a proper quality level or replaced. Oblasts with too few key entry personnel were provided assistance from the central NATSTATCOM key entry staff. Upon completion of the data entry at each oblast, diskettes containing all data were sent to the central office (NATSTATCOM) for compilation, final editing and cleaning. All population point questionnaires were keyed by the central office data entry staff.
The KPMS surveys were carried out using a household questionnaire and a community (population point) questionnaire. The household questionnaires were used to collect demographic information on the composition of the household, housing, household consumption including home production, as well as economic activities in agricultural and non-agricultural sectors. For each household member, individual level data on health, education, migration and labor was collected using the household questionnaires. Community questionnaires were used to collect price data and the presence of social services and infrastructure in the community (population point) where the sampled household is located.
The household questionnaire was extensive and required several hours of intense interviewing to gather all that was needed from each household and its embers. The household questionnaire was split into two parts. The first part was used to collect data through a face to face interview on household roster, dwelling, education, health, migration, etc. At the end of the first part, members who shop for food for the whole household and those who know most about income, expenditure and savings of other household members were identified and designated as respondents for the next part (second round). The second round of interview was administered two weeks after the first half and collected data on crops, food and animal products produced by the household, food expenditure and home produced food consumption.
Some sections of the household questionnaire such as those that deal with dwelling and expenditure information were administered to the person most knowledgeable of the family's overall expenditures, income and other finances as well as about the family's business activities and employment. In other sections, each adult in each sample household was interviewed individually. The information gathered from each household included extensive data on education, health, employment, migration, reproduction and reproductive health (for women aged 15 to 49), land use, expenditure, revenue and other financial matters, as well as anthropometric measurements (for children 5 years and younger). Information about children under 14 years of age was collected by asking the relevant questions to the adult household member who is primarily responsible for each child's care.
The community (Population Point) questionnaires were administered to each sample cluster. They were used to collect data on prices of goods and services, distance to schools, shopping and medical facilities, types of housing, commercial and private land use and availability of infrastructure.
The KPMS household questionnaires generally contain 15 major sections, and each of these sections covers a separate aspect of household activity. In some cases, the section has sub-sections. These household questionnaires were designed to better assess the changing environment brought about by the advent of a market economy and to enable a more in depth analysis of topics such as housing, health, and education. The various sections of the KPMS household questionnaire are described below.The household questionnaires administered in the KPMS surveys are more or less similar with minor modifications and additions in the successive rounds of the KPMS.
POPULATION POINT QUESTIONNAIRE
The community (population point) questionnaire was used to collect information and data that are relevant to the community/population point where the household is located. The questionnaire was designed to be administered in the geographical area of each sample cluster. It was used to collect data regarding prices of goods and services in the local area and data on community infrastructure. Respondents to these questionnaires are those believed to be well informed members of the community that the interviewers identified by going to the rayon, city, oblast administration or other governmental agency located in the population point6. The questionnaire also contains sections to be administered to retail outlets in the neighborhoods that sell various products such as food, drinks, tobacco products and fuel. Other data collected using the population point questionnaire includes distance to schools, distance to shopping and to medical facilities, commercial and private land use in the community, availability of electricity, water, communication and other infrastructure. Similar population point questionnaires were used in all KPMS. The population point questionnaires were completed by the field supervisors. The population point questionnaire contains nine (9) major sections
There are no significant data quality problems, but the following deserve mentioning.
1) In discussions with NATSTATCOM staff, it was learned that the household registration that was used in the sampling process may not actually cover all resident persons. As more migration occurs, some residents may either be homeless or occupy housing units not included in the household registration system. It was pointed out that trends in household registration coverage need to be monitored in the future. If this becomes a serious problem, a move toward strict area probability sampling might be the only alternative that would provide near complete household population coverage.
ii) A review of the sample selection process was conducted after the survey by a senior statistician on site in Bishkek. According to the review, field sampling steps were completed according to plan, but problems were encountered in four clusters with classifying households into the four types:
Type 1 - Private house resident households listed by BTIs
Type 2 - Public house residents listed with other organizations with dormitories only
Type 3 - Public and private households listed by JSKs
Type 4 - Public and private households listed by all other organizations.
As a result, too many households were selected and interviewed in these clusters. To insure appropriate level of representation in the sample from these clusters, only a subsample of the interviews from these clusters were retained for the final data file.
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Kyrgyz Republic 720033
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Kyrgyz Republic National Statistical Committee. Poverty Monitoring Survey (KPMS) 1996. Ref. KGZ_1996_KPMS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from www.microdata.worldbank.org on [date]
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