In 1993, just prior to the first national elections in South Africa, the Southern Africa Labour Development Research Unit (SALDRU) of the University of Cape Town directed the first comprehensive survey of households across the country, collecting socio-economic information on a variety of topics. This earlier survey provided the first accurate representation the socio-economic condition of the country as a whole and has proved useful for researchers and policy makers alike. For example, it has helped direct the provision of government services including schools and health facilities. It has also led to a redistribution of resources among provinces, increasing the amounts directed to poorer provinces, including KwaZulu-Natal. The 1998 KwaZulu-Natal Income Dynamics Study (KIDS) re-visit the same households (in KwaZulu-Natal) who were interviewed as part of 1993 study and collect similar information. This survey is essentially a follow-up study of the households in KwaZulu-Natal.
The information collected in household surveys, such as this one, is used to describe and understand the living conditions and experiences of South Africans. Often, however, different surveys use different sample areas and interview different households, making it difficult to know whether the living standards or circumstances of particular households have improved. The aim of this survey is to determine whether or not there have been any changes in the socio-economic conditions of those households interviewed in 1993. This information will be used to understand the dynamics of household behaviour over time.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Units of analysis in the Kwazulu Natal Income Dynamics Study 1993-1998 are households and individuals
Version 02: Edited, anonymised dataset for public distribution
Version 2 of the Kwazulu Natal Income Dynamics Study 1993-1998 was released in 2001. The data is updated from the first version of the data release (April 2000) as it excludes two clusters from both the 1993 and 1998 samples. During related follow-up field research in May 2001 it was discovered that all 39 household interviews in clusters 217 and 218 had been fabricated in both 1993 and 1998; these households are dropped in this analysis (and in the updated release of the data), leading to minor discrepancies between the figures concerning attrition reported here and those reported in previously published work, in particular, May et al. (2000). Also, cluster 206 is now coded as urban as it was incorrectly coded as rural in the 1993 released data.
Note: Weights calculated by the World Bank and provided with the original data are NOT updated to reflect these changes.
The 1993 Project for Statistics on Living Standards and Development was an integrated household survey similar in design to a World Bank Living Standards Measurement Survey. The main component was a comprehensive household survey that collected a broad array of information on the socio-economic condition of households. Among other things, it included sections on household demographics, household environment, education, food and non-food expenditures, remittances, employment and income, agricultural activities, health, and anthropometry (weights and heights of children aged six and under).
To ensure comparability, the 1998 Kwazulu-Natal Income Dynamics Study household questionnaire largely followed the 1993 PSLSD study, though there were some important changes. One of these was a greater focus on individual (as opposed to household) ownership of assets and control over their use so that individual, generation, and gender-differentiated analyses are possible. A second difference was an expanded emphasis on those individuals not living in the household but economically linked to it. Finally, four new sections were added including economic shocks (both positive and negative), social capital (including group membership, kin networks, civic engagement, and trust), assets brought to marriage, and household decisionmaking
The survey covered households in KwaZulu-Natal Province, on the east coast of South Africa
The lowest level of geographic aggregation covered by the data from the Kwazulu Natal Income Dynamics Study is magisterial district
The Kwazulu Natal Income Dynamics Study 1993-1998 covered all household members.
Producers and sponsors
International Food Policy Research Institute
University of Natal-Durban
University of Wisconsin-Madison
The 1993 sample was selected using a two-stage self-weighting design. In the first stage, clusters were chosen with probability proportional to size from census enumerator subdistricts (ESD) or approximate equivalents where an ESD was not available. In the second stage, all households in each chosen cluster were enumerated and a random sample of them selected. (See PSLSD, 1994, for further details.)
In 1993, the KwaZulu-Natal portion of the PSLSD sample was designed to be representative at the provincial level, conditional on the accuracy of the 1991 census and other information used for the sampling frame, and contained households of all races. It was decided not to re-survey the small number of white and coloured households in 1998, however. While there were minor advantages to retaining these groups, the relatively small number of households in each group (112 white households and 53 coloured) would have precluded most comparative ethnic analyses. Moreover, the households in these ethnic groups were entirely located in a small number of clusters (due to the general lack of spatial integration of the population), undermining their representativeness. As a result, the 1998 sample includes only African and Indian households.
International Food Policy Research Institute, University of Natal-Durban and University of Wisconsin-Madison.Kwazulu-Natal Income Dynamics Study 1993-1998 (KIDS 1993-1998). [dataset]. Version 2. Washington, Durban, Wisconsin: IFPRI, UND, UWM [producers], 2001. Cape Town: DataFirst [distributor], 2011.
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
University of Cape Town
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 02 (July 2013). Edited from Version 01 DDI (ddi-zaf-datafirst-kids-1993-1998-v1) that was done by DataFirst.