Household Income, Consumption and Expenditure Survey 1995-1996
Income/Expenditure/Household Survey [hh/ies]
In recent years, the need for comprehensive economic statistics has been growing rapidly in most developing countries in view of the use of such statistics in formulating socio-economic development plans in general, and to assess the socio-economic situation at the micro level, in particular. Thus, reliable and timely economic statistics data at the household level such as the ones obtained from Household Income, Consumption and Expenditure Surveys, on a regular basis are the major sources of socio-economic information. These surveys provide valuable data, especially for assessment of the impact of policies on the conditions and levels of living of households. In this survey, data were collected on basic population characteristics; consumption of food, drinks and tobacco; expenditure of the household on various consumption and non-consumption items; and household income and receipts. The data collection exercise took into account the two major seasons of the country, i.e., the slack/wet season and the peak/dry (harvest) season. It is a well known fact that surveys of Household Income, Consumption and Expenditure usually have the major goal of providing basic data needed for policy making purposes as well as other related issues that might arise at the micro level.
The major objectives of the survey are to:
- Provide data on the levels, distribution and pattern of household income, consumption and expenditure that will be used for analysis of changes in the levels of living standards of households over time in various socio-economic groups and geographical areas.
- Obtained information for the formulation of socio-economic plans and policies.
- Furnish bench mark data for assessing the impact of existing or proposed socio-economic programs on household living conditions.
- Provide data for compiling household accounts in the system of national accounts, especially in the estimation of private consumption expenditure.
- Obtain weights and other useful information for the construction of consumer price indices at various levels.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
- Consumption expenditure item/ product/ service
Version 1.1: Edited and non anonymized dataset, for internal use only.
Version 03 is the updated version produced by Development Data Group (The World Bank) based on Version 02 which was Adopted from DDI (DDI-ETH-CSA-HICE-1995-v1.1) that was done by Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia and reviewed by International Household Survey Network (IHSN). Data was added to survey.
The scope of 1995-96 Household Income, Consumption and Expenditure Survey included:
- Household characteristics: Covered household member information like, sex, age, educational status, marital status and work status of household members aged 10 years and above.
- Household income, consumption and expenditure information by source.
The 1995-1996 Household Income, Consumption and Expenditure Survey covered all parts of the country on sample basis except the non sedentary population in Afar and Somali regions.
The survey covered all households in the selected sample areas excluding residents of collective quarters, homeless persons and foreigners.
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistical Agency (CSA)
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
Government of Ethiopia
Funded the study
The 1995-1996 Household Income, Consumption and Expenditure Survey covered both urban and rural parts of the country, except six zones in Somalie region and two zones in Afar region. For the purpose of the survey, the country was divided into four categories. Urban areas were divided into twp broad categories taking into account sizes of their population. Rural areas were also grouped into two categories.
Rural parts of eight regions were grouped in this category each of which was the survey domain (reporting level). These regions are Tigray, Afar, Somali, Benishangul-Gumz, Gambela, Harari, Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa.
In this category thirteen survey domains were defined by grouping contiguous rural parts of the zones or special weredas in Amhara, Oromiya, and SNNP Regions respectively. These were:
I) North Gonder, South Gonder
II) East Gojam, West Gojam and Agew Awi
III) North Welo and Wag Himra, and
IV) South Welo, Oromiya and North Shoa
I) East Wellega, and Wellega
II) Ilubabor and Jimma
III) North Shoa, West Shoa
IV) East Shoa, Arsi, Bale and Borena, and
V) East and West Hararge
I) Keficho-Shekicho, Bench-Maji and Yem,
II) North Omo, South Omo, Derashe and Konso,
III) Gurage, Hadiya and Kembata-Alaba-Timbaro, and
IV) Sidama, Gedio, Amaro and Burji. Other than the 13 domains (reporting levels) defined in Category II, three additional domains could be constructed by combining basic domains from the two rural categories. These domains are:
a) Rural Amhara
b) Rural Oromiya and
c) Rural SNNP
Category III: Ten large urban centers of the country were grouped in this category. Each of the ten urban centers in this category was the survey domain (reporting level), for which separate survey results for major survey characteristics were reported.
Urban centers in the country other than the ten urban centers in category III were grouped in this category and formed a single reporting level.
Other than the eleven domains (reporting levels) defined in Category III and Category IV, one additional domain, namely total urban (country level) can be constructed by combining the basic domains defined in the two categories.
All in all twenty four basic rural domains (reporting levels) including total rural (country level) were defined for the survey.
In addition to the above urban rural domains, survey results are to be reported at regional and country levels by aggregating the survey results for the corresponding urban and rural area.
Definition of the survey domains was based on both technical and resource considerations. More specifically, sample sizes for the domains were determined to enable provision of major indicators with reasonable precision subject to the resources that were available for the survey.
The sample selection scheme and sample size issues are discussed as follows:
a) Category I and Category II:
A stratified two-stage sample design was used to select the sample in which the Primary Sampling Units (PSUs) were enumeration areas (EAs). Sample EAs from each domain were selected using systematic probability proportional to size; size being number of households obtained form 1994 population and housing census. A total of 620 EAs were selected from the rural part. Within each sample EA a fresh list of households was prepared at the beginning of the survey's filed work and for the administration of the survey questionnaire 12 households per sample EA were systematically selected.
b) Category III:
Stratified two-stage sample design was used to select the sample in which the PSUs were EAs. Sample EAs from each domain were selected using systematic probability proportional to size; size being number of household obtained form the 1994 population and housing census. In this category, a total of 220 EAs were selected. Within each sample EA, fresh list of households was prepared at the beginning of the survey's field work and for the administration of the survey questionnaire 15 households per sample EA were systematically selected.
c) Category IV:
Three-stage stratified sample design was adopted to select the sample from domains in category IV. The PSUs were urban centers selected using systematic probability proportional to size; size being number of households obtained from the 1994 population and housing census. The secondary sampling units (SSUs) were EAs which were selected using systematic probability proportion to size; size being number of households obtained from the 1994 population and housing census. Number of sample SSUs selected from each of the sample urban centers was determined by proportional allocation to their household population from the census. Ultimately, 15 households within each of the sample EAs were selected systematically from a fresh list of households prepared at the beginning of the survey's field work the administration of the survey questionnaire.
Note: Distribution of sample units by domain (reporting levels) is given in Summary Tables A and B (first round) and Summary Tables C and D (second round) of 1995 Household Income, Consumption and Expenditure Survey report which is provided as external resource.
A total of 943 enumeration areas (EAs) were selected to be covered in each round of the survey in all regions. Nevertheless, due to various factors beyond the control of the CSA, 51 and 14 EAs were closed in the first and second rounds of the survey respectively, Thus, the survey succeeded to cover 572 EAs in the rural and 320 EAs in the urban areas in the first round and 606 EAs in the rural and 323 EAs in the urban areas in the second round. In each round the survey was conducted on the basis of 12 rural and 15 urban households selected in each EA and in total the survey covered 23,369 households.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
The field supervision activity of the 1995-1996 HICES was launched right after the first round data collection was started. The supervision was designed in such a way as to closely monitor the data collection activities, facilitate the enumeration process and ensure that the data collection takes place according to the instruction. In addition to this regular supervision throughout the two-round survey periods, coordinators in most cases professionals, equipped with a thorough understanding of the subject matter, have closely observed the quality of data collection on the spot even during the interview period. Furthermore, a team of experts from the Head Office have visited all Branch Offices and some urban and rural enumeration areas to get a firsthand impression of the whole activity of the field work.
Data Collection Notes
The survey, which has been conducted in rural and urban areas simultaneously, was one of the huge undertakings launched by the Central Statistical Authority (CSA). Thus, it was felt from its very inception that a pilot study should be conducted in order to test the survey instruments, the reaction of respondents and the different technical, administrative and logistics requirements of the main survey.
To this end, a pilot study has been conducted in Addis Ababa and in some rural enumeration areas of Oromiya for a period of one month (15 March 1995 to 14 April 1995). A total of fifteen enumeration areas, ten in Addis Ababa and five in the mentioned rural areas were covered by the pilot study. Some 100 rural and urban households were interviewed in this test. In general, this exercise enabled the Authority to make some important improvements of the final survey document and to assess and allocate the necessary technical as well as administrative and logistics support needed for the survey.
The next step after the pilot study was the training of the field staff for the main survey, which was carried out in two phases. During the first phase, training on the survey instruments, i.e., survey questionnaires, instruction manual, etc., was given for about 70 professional and sub-professional staff at the head office. The first phase of the training lasted for ten days. These staff served as trainers of enumerators and supervisors. The second phase of the training was conducted in 14 branch statistical offices. It involved the training of about 1000 enumerators and 200 field supervisors and this training lasted for about 20 days.
The field work of the first round Household Income, Consumption and Expenditure Survey started on the 11th of June and covered 572 rural and 320 urban enumeration areas. The first-round data collection was completed during the first week of August 1995.
The field work of the second round of this survey was carried out in December 1995 and January 1996 and covered more or less those same enumeration sites and households both in rural and urban areas.
In most of the sample units' data were collected from 12 households in each rural sample EA and 15 households from each urban sample EA. The interview method and objective measurement of household consumption items were utilized throughout the survey period.
In rural areas data were collected in such a way that the 12 households selected form each enumeration area was grouped into two, each group consisting of six households. The first six households are interviewed over a period of four weeks. The enumerator visited two households daily so that each household is interviewed twice a week and eight times during the one month period in each round.
In the case of urban centers, the 15 households were also grouped into two. That is, seven households were interviewed during the first four weeks while the remaining eight households were interviewed during the following four weeks. The workload distribution of the enumerators in the urban centers was to interview a maximum of three households per day. As in the rural case, here too, each sample household was interviewed twice weekly, i.e., eight times monthly in each round. It is believed that the relatively frequently visits made by the enumerator to each household was essential to control the errors.
Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia
Ministry of Finance and Economic Development
The survey used structured questionnaire that consisted of the following forms:
- Form 1: Household characteristics (list of members, sex, age, marital status, etc)
- Form 2A: Quantity and value of weekly consumption of food, drinks and tobacco for the first and second week
- Form 2B: Quantity and value of weekly consumption of food, drinks and tobacco for the third and fourth week
- Form 3: Consumption expenditure of the household on clothing, headwear, footwear and the like
- Form 4A: Consumption expenditure on housing: House rent and repairs, energy, water for first and second week
- Form 4B: Consumption expenditure on housing: House rent and repairs, energy, water for third and fourth week
- Form 5: Consumption expenditure on household operation and domestic service/ domestic utensils, cleaning items, domestic services, etc
- Form 6A: Household consumption expenditure on services: Health, education, transport and communications, entertainment, etc for the first and second week
- Form 6B: Household consumption expenditure on services: Health, education, transport and communications, entertainment, etc for the third and fourth week
- Form 7A: Household consumption expenditure on personal care and effects and other expenditure for first and second week
- Form 7B: Household consumption expenditure on personal care and effects and other expenditure for third and fourth week
- Form 8: Non-consumption expenditure of households: 'Ekub', 'Edir' payments, remittance given out, purchases of lottery tickets, gambling expenses, etc
- Form 9A: Income received by the household in cash and/or in kind for first and second week
- Form 9B: Income received by the household in cash and/or in Kind for third and fourth week
Note: The survey questionnaire is provided as external resource.
A task force comprising of subject matter specialists and data processing experts was formed to oversee the data processing and analysis activities of the surveys starting from August 1995. Manual Data Editing: After the completion of the first round data collection and the filled-out questionnaires were returned from the field, the task force embarked on the first stage of data processing activity, i.e., manual editing, coding and verification. With the utilization of experienced editors and verifiers, the editing, coding and verification of the questionnaires have taken the most part of three months after which data entry was started.
For the data entry activity, the Integrated Microcomputer Processing System (IMPS) software was used throughout. To speed up this process, experienced data entry operators from the 1994 Population and Housing Census were used and the data entry activity was completed in December 1995. The survey data collected during the second round (December 1995 / January 1996) have also passed through all the data processing activities stated above for the first round.
After the data entry of both rounds has been completed, the next step in the data processing activity was to merge these data. Mention has to be made here that the merging of the two rounds, data was a difficult and challenging task.
However, with the help of a short consultancy service from Statistics Norway, the merging was successfully completed in May 1996, after which data cleaning, detailed and thorough consistency checking were done. In fact, the data cleaning and the consistency checking, which were important for the generation of the final tabular reports, were done both manually and by computer.
The whole data set was thoroughly cleaned and the consistency checking was completed slightly behind schedule due to unforeseen problems encountered during the production of the tabular reports.
Estimates of Sampling Error
Details of the estimation procedures, standard errors and coefficients of variations of selected variables is presented in Annex I of the 1995-1996 Household Income, Consumption and Expenditure Survey report which is provided as external resources.
The Central Statistical Agency (CSA) is committed to achieving excellence in the provision of timely, reliable and affordable official statistics for informed decision making in order to maximize the welfare of all Ethiopians. This is achieved through the collection and analysis of censuses, surveys and the use of administrative data as well as the dissemination a range of statistical products and providing assistance and services to users.
A microdata dissemination policy is established by CSA to address the conditions and the manner in which anonymized microdata files may be released to users for research purposes. It also strives to identify the different levels of anonymization for different categories of data use. This policy is available at CSA website (www.csa.gov.et <http://www.csa.gov.et>).
CSA will release microdata files for use by researchers for scientific research purposes when:
The Director General is satisfied that all reasonable steps have been taken to prevent the identification of individual respondents
The release of the data will substantially enhance the analytic value of the data that have been collected
For all but purely public files, researchers disclose the nature and objectives of their intended research,
It can be demonstrated that there are no credible alternative sources for these data, and
The researchers have signed an appropriate undertaking.
Terms and conditions of use of public data files are the following:
The data and other materials provided by CSA will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organizations without the written agreement of CSA.
The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only. They will be used solely for reporting of aggregated information, and not for investigation of specific individuals or organizations.
No attempt will be made to re-identify respondents, and no use will be made of the identity of any person or establishment discovered inadvertently. Any such discovery would immediately be reported to the CSA.
No attempt will be made to produce links among datasets provided by CSA, or among data from the CSA and other datasets that could identify individuals or organizations.
Any books, articles, conference papers, theses, dissertations, reports, or other publications that employ data obtained from CSA will cite the source of data in accordance with the Citation Requirement provided with each dataset.
An electronic copy of all reports and publications based on the requested data will be sent to CSA.
The original collector of the data, CSA, and the relevant funding agencies bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
Cost Recovery Policy:
It is the policy of CSA to encourage broad use of its products by making them affordable for users. Accordingly, CSA attempts to ensure that the costs of creating anonymized microdata files are built-in to the survey budget.
At the same time, CSA attempts to recover costs associated with the provisions of special services that benefit only a specific group. Information on the price of each dataset is available at CSA website (www.csa.gov.et <http://www.csa.gov.et>).
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Central Statistical Agency. Household Income, Consumption and Expenditure Survey (HICES) 1995-1996. ETH_1995_HCES_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Central Statistical Agency
Ministry of finance and economic Development
Production and documentation of the study
International Household Survey Network
Review of the metadata
Development Data Group
The World Bank
Update the DDI
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 03 (May 2018)
- Datasets provided
Version 02 (September 2013). Edited version based on Version 1.1 DDI (DDI-ETH-CSA-HICE-1995-v1.1) that was done by Ethiopia Central Statistical Agency and reviewed by International Household Survey Network (IHSN).