The 2000 Family Income and Expenditures Survey (FIES 2000) is a nationwide survey of households undertaken by the National Statistics Office. It is the main source of data on family income and expenditures.
From 1957 to 1975, the FIES was conducted every five years. However, in 1985, a new series of FIES (in terms of content and methodology) had begun and the gap of conducting this survey was reduced to three years. Hence, this is the twelfth FIES since March 1957.
The 2000 Family Income and Expenditute Survey had the following objectives:
1.to gather data on family income and family living expenditures and related information affecting income and expenditure levels and patterns in the Philippines;
2. t o determine the sources of income and income distribution, levels of living and spending patterns, and the degree of inequality among families;
3. to provide benchmark information to update weights in the estimation of consumer price index (CPI); and
4. to provide inputs in the estimation of the country's poverty threshold and incidence.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Consumption expenditure item
Income by source
The 2000 Family Income and Expenditure Survey covered the following:
- Identification, household head information, type of household, total number of household members, and number of member of the household who were employed for pay or profit last quarter.
- Household consumption and expenditure
- Income and other receipts
The 2000 FIES has as its target population, all households and members of households nationwide. Institutional population is not within the scope of the survey.
Producers and sponsors
National Statistics Office
Government of Philippines
Government of Philippines
Funding the study
The sampling design of the 2000 FIES adopted that of the Integrated Survey of Households (ISH). Starting July 1996, the sampling design of the ISH uses the new master sample design. The multi-stage sampling design of the master sample consists of 3,416 sample barangays in the expanded sample for provincial level estimates with a sub-sample of 2,247 Primary Sampling Units (PSUs) designated as core master sample for regional level estimates. The 2000 FIES was based on the expanded sample.
1. Domains: The domains for the new master sample are similar to that of the previous ISH design with an addition of 23 newly created domains. The urban and rural areas of cities and municipalities with a population of 150,000 or more are considered as separate domains. The other urban and rural areas in each of the 77 provinces are likewise treated as separate domains. In view of the creation of ARMM and the separation of Marawi City and Cotabato City from Lanao del Sur and Maguindanao, respectively, the urban and rural areas of the two cities also form separate domains.
2. Sampling Units: The multi-stage sampling design of the master sample involves the selection of the sample barangays for the first stage, selection of sample enumeration areas for the second stage, and the selection of sample households for the third stage in each stratum for every domain.
The frame for the first and second stages of sample selection was based mainly on the results of the 1995 Census of Population (POPCEN). The 1995 POPCEN list of barangays with the household and population counts is used in the first stage of sample selection. The stratification of barangays included in the frame, however, are based on the 1990 Census of Population and Housing (CPH) and other administrative reports from field offices of the NSO. An enumeration area (EA) is a physical delineated portion of the barangay. For barangays that were not divided into EAs, the barangay was treated as an EA.
The enumeration areas which constitute the secondary stage sampling units are those that were formed during the 1995 POPCEN. The sample barangays were selected systematically with probability proportional to size from the list of barangays that were implicitly stratified.
Isolated barangays and/or barangays that are difficult and expensive to reach are excluded from the sampling frame. However, critical areas or barangays with peace and order problem, which is generally temporary in nature, are included in the frame.
The frame for the third stage of sample selection is the list of the households from the 1995 POPCEN. The selection of sample household for the third stage was done systematically from the 1995 POPCEN List of the Households.
The response rate for the 2000 FIES is 96.6%
The basic weight for the sample households for the 2000 FIES can be expressed as an inverse of the probability.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
The Regional Directors (RDs), Provincial Statistics Officers (PSOs) and selected District Statistical Officers (DSOs) acted as supervisor.
The following were done during the supervision:
1. Observe how the interview is being conducted. Errors noted should be pointed out to the enumerators to avoid the same mistakes in succeeding interview.
2. Scrutinize the accomplished questionnaire for completeness and consistencies of entries
3. Conduct a random re-interview of households/respondents
4. Helped solve problems encountered by enumerators
5. Ensure that expected outputs of the enumerators are met.
6. Ensure that the enumerators who were trained were the ones conducting the interview.
7. Collect the questionnaires from the enumerators as well as accomplishment reports.
8. Be available if the enumerators need assistance in relation to the conduct of the interview.
9. Fill-up the Supervisor's Report Form which shall be submitted to the Regional Office.
Data Collection Notes
Just like previous FIES, the 2000 FIES adopts the "shuttle type" of data collection. The sample are interviewed in two separate operation using the same questionnaire, each time using the half-year period preceding the interview as reference period. The scheme was utilized to improve the quality of data gathered since it minimizes memory bias of the respondent and at the same time captures the seasonality of income and expenditure pattern. In general, the first phase of survey operation was conducted in July 2000 and data gathered were for the period January 1 to June 30, 2000. The second operation was conducted in January 2001 and gathered information for the period July 1, to December 31, 2000.
The concept of "average week" consumption for all food items was also utilized in the 2000 FIES in order to further reduce memory bias. Moreover, the reference period for Fuel, Light and Water, Transportation and Communication, Household Operations and Personal Care and Effects is not limited only to the "past month" but in some specified cases, the concept of "average month" consumption is used. For all other expenditure groups, the "past six months" is used as reference period. Estimates of income and expenditure in kind such as food items received as gifts, rental value of owner-occupied house are based on prevailing market prices or rental value in the locality.
Training was conducted in three (3) levels:
- The first level training held at the Central Office, had the Task Force participated by selected Central Office staff and their counterpart field personnel including among others Provincial Statistics Officers (PSOs) Statisticians and Statistical Coordination Officers (SCOs). The Central Office staff and selected field personnel acted as trainers for the second level training held at the regional offices.
- The second level training was attended by Regional Directors (RDs)/regional staff/assistants, PSOs/OICs and their assistants and selected DSOs. They in turn acted as trainers in the third level training. The participants in the third level training were some DSOs, SCOs and hired Statistical Researchers (SRs) involved in the operation.
- The third level training was held at the provincial offices.
National Statistics Office
Government of Philippines
The questionnaire has four main parts consisting of the following:
Part I. Identification and Other Information (Geographic Identification, Other Information and Particulars about the Family)
Part II. Expenditures
Section A. Food, Alcoholic Beverages and Tobacco
Section B. Fuel, Light and Water, Transportation and Communication, Household Operations
Section C. Personal Care and Effects, Clothing Footwear and Other Wear
Section D. Education, Recreation, and Medical Care
Section E. Furnishings and Equipment
Section F. Taxes
Section G. Housing, House Maintenance and Minor Repairs
Section H. Miscellaneous Expenditures
Section I. Other Disbursements
Part III. Income
Section A. Salaries and Wages from Employment
Section B. Net Share of Crops, Fruits and Vegetables Produced and/or Livestock and Poultry Raised by Other Households
Section C. Other Sources of Income
Section D. Other Receipts
Section F. Family Sustenance Activities
Part IV. Entrepreneurial Activities
Section A1. Crop Farming and Gardening
Section A2. Livestock and Poultry
Section A3. Fishing
Section A4. Forestry and hunting
Section A5. Wholesale and Retail
Section A6. Manufacturing
Section A7. Community, Social, Recreational and Personal Services
Section A8. Transportation, Storage and Communication Services
Section A9. Mining and Quarrying
Section A10. Construction
Section A11. Entrepreneurial Activities Not Elsewhere Classified
A guide for comparing disbursements against receipts is found on the last page.
The general design of the questionnaire also includes codes inside the box usually located at the top of the framed questions. These codes are for automatic data processing purposes. Ignore them during the interview process. Take note that the paging of the questionnaire is located outside the frame on each page.
The 2000 FIES questionnaire contains about 800 data items and a summary for comparing income and expenditures. The questionnaires were subjected to a rigorous manual and machine edit checks for completeness, arithmetic accuracy, range validity and internal consistency.
The major steps in the machine processing are as follows:
1. Data entry
2. Structural, Range Edit and Consistency Edit (Minor Edit)
3. Completeness Check
4. Matching of visit records
5. Generation of the Binary file
6. Consistency and Macro Edit (Big Edit)
9. Generation of CPI
10. Variance Analysis
11. Generation of the Public Use File (PUF)
Steps 1 to 3 were done right after each visit. The remaining steps were carried out only after the second visit had been completed.
Steps 1 to 6 were done at the Regional Office where Steps 4-6 were accomplished only after finishing the second visit. Steps 7 to 11 were completed in the Central Office.
After completing Steps 1 to 6, data files were transmitted to the Central Office where a summary file was generated. The summary file was used to produce the consistency tables as well as the preliminary and textual tables.
Where the generated tables showed inconsistencies, selected data items were subjected to further scrutiny and validation. The cycle of generation of consistency tables and data validation were done until questionable data items were verified.
Innovations for the 2000 FIES machine processing were carried out by the Information Technology System and Research Division of the NSO by introducing the FIES Integrated Processing System (FIPS). This is a Windows application system which facilitated data encoding, completeness and validity check.
The 2000 FIES machine processing was further enhanced using an interactive Windows-based system named FAME (FIES computer-Aided Consistency and Macro Editing). The interactive module of FAME enabled the following activities to be done simultaneously:
a) Matching of visit records
b) Generation of Binary files
c) Consistency and Macro Edit (Big Edit)
d) Range Check
The improved system minimized processing time as well as minimized, if not eliminated the need for paper to generate the reject listing.
This (Census/Survey) conforms to the provisions of confidentiality stated under Section 4 of Commonwealth Act No. 591, which says that the "Data furnished to the Bureau of Census and Statistics (BCS) now known as the National Statistics Office, by an individual, corporation, partnership, institution or business enterprise shall not be used as evidence in any court or in any public office either as evidence against the individual, corporation, association, partnership, institution, or business enterprise from whom such data emanates; nor shall such data or information be divulged to any person except authorized employees of the BCS acting in the performance of their duties; nor shall such data be published except in the form of summaries or statistical tables in which no reference to an individual, corporation, association, partnership, institution or business enterprise shall appear."
Authorization to use this data is granted only to the client or data user and persons within its organization, if applicable. Under no circumstances shall the client reproduce, distribute, sell or lend the entire data or parts thereof to any other data user apart from himself or that of authorized employees in his organization. The NSO shall hold the data user fully responsible for safeguarding the data from any unauthorized access or use.
Before being granted access to the dataset, all users have to formally agree:
1. To make no copies of any files or portions of files to which s/he is granted access except those authorized by the NSO.
2. Not to use any technique in an attempt to learn the identity of any person, establishment, or sampling unit not identified in the dataset.
3. To hold in strictest confidence the identification of any establishment or individual that may be inadvertently revealed in any documents or discussion, or analysis. Such inadvertent identification revealed in her/his analysis will be immediately be reported to the NSO.
Any report, paper or similar articles, whether published or not, emanating from the use of this data shall give appropriate acknowledgement as suggested herein, “(Title of Census/Survey, version number and date), National Statistics Office, Manila, Philippines”, as the source of basic data. The data user or client is encouraged to provide NSO with a copy of such report, paper or article. It is understood that unless expressly allowed by the client, such report, paper or article shall not be used for any purpose other than monitoring.