The 1997 Family Income and Expenditures Survey (FIES 1997) is a nationwide survey of households undertaken by the National Statistics Office. It is the main source of data on family income and expenditures.
From 1957 to 1975, the FIES was conducted every five years. However, in 1985, a new series of FIES (in terms of content and methodology) had begun and the gap of conducting this survey was reduced to three years. Hence, this is the twelfth FIES since March 1957.
The 1997 Family Income and Expenditute Survey had the following objectives:
1. to gather data on family income and family living expenditures and related information affecting income and expenditure levels and patterns in the Philippines;
2. to determine the sources of income and income distribution, levels of living and spending patterns, and the degree of inequality among families;
3. to provide benchmark information to update weights in the estimation of consumer price index (CPI); and
4. to provide inputs in the estimation of the country's poverty threshold and incidence.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Consumption expenditure item
Income by source
The 1997 Family Income and Expenditure Survey covered the following:
- Identification, household head information, type of household, total number of household members, and number of member of the household who were employed for pay or profit last quarter.
- Housing conditions/ characteristics
- Household consumption and expenditure
- Income and other receipts
- Health care
- Enterpreneurial activities
The 1997 FIES has as its target population, all households and members of households nationwide. A household is defined as an aggregate of persons, generally but not necessarily bound by ties of kinship, who live together under the same roof and eat together or share in common the household food. Household membership comprises the head of the household, relatives living with him such as his/her spouse, children, parent, brother/sister, son-in-law/daughter-in-law, grandson/granddaughter and other relatives. Household membership likewise includes boarders, domestic helpers and non-relatives. A person who lives alone is considered a separate household.
Institutional population is not within the scope of the survey.
Producers and sponsors
National Statistics Office
Government of Philippines
Government of Philippines
Funding the survey
The sampling design of the 1997 FIES adopted that of the Integrated Survey of Households (ISH). Starting July 1996, the sampling design of the ISH uses the new master sample design. The multi-stage sampling design of the master sample consists of 3,416 PSUs in the expanded sample for provincial level estimates with a sub-sample of 2,247 PSUs designated as the core master sample for regional levels estimates. The 1997 FIES was based on the expanded sample.
The urban and rural areas of each province are the principal domains for the survey. In addition, areas with 150,000 or more population as of 1995 Census of Population (POPCEN) are also domains of the survey with rural and urban dimensions.
The domains for the new master sample are similar to that of the previous ISH design with an addition of 23 newly created domains.
The multi-stage sampling design of the master sample involves the selection of the sample barangays for the first stage, selection of sample enumeration areas for the second stage, and the selection of sample households for the third stage in each stratum for every domain.
The frame for the first stage and second stages of sample selection were based mainly on the results of the 1995 POPCEN. The 1995 list of barangays with the household and population counts is used in the first stage of sample selection. The stratification of barangays included in the frame, however are based on the 1990 Census of Population and Housing (CPH) and other administrative reports from the field offices of NSO. An enumeration area (EA) is a physical delineated portion of the barangay. For barangays that were not divided into EAs, the barangay was treated as an EA.
The enumeration areas which constitutes the secondary sampling units are those that were formed during the 1995 POPCEN. The sample barangays were selected systematically with probability proportional to size from the list of barangays that were implicitly stratified.
The frame for the third stage of sample selection is the list of households from the 1995 POPCEN. The selection of sample households for the third stage was done systematically from the 1995 POPCEN List of Households.
The response rate for the 1997 FIES is 96.4%.
The basic weight for the sample households for the 1997 FIES can be expressed as an inverse of the probability.
Dates of Data Collection
Visit 1 - First Phase
Visit 2- Secondt Phase
Data Collection Mode
The Regional Administrators (RAs), Provincial Statistical Officers (PSOs) , Provincial Statisticians and selected District Statistical Officers (DSOs)/ Statistical Coordination Officers (SCOs) are provided funds for supervision. It is expected that there should always be strict supervision on the conduct of the survey.
All field personnel who will supervise during the operation should prepare an itinerary of travel to insure effective and close supervision of the enumerators. A copy of the itinerary of travel should always be available in the field office so that in case some problems or other matters require the attention of a supervisor, then he can be located easily. Central Office (CO) personnel will also be assigned in the field during the enumeration and it will be important to contact the field staff to determine the status of the operation.
It is the responsibility of the supervisors to give prompt action to problems in the field. The RDs, PSOs and their assistants should visit enumerators (ENs) within their jurisdiction to find out for themselves if instructions are being followed.
All field personnel who will supervise are required to fill-up ISH Form 1B.
During supervision, the following should be done:
1. Observe how the interview is being conducted. Errors noted should be pointed out to the ENs to avoid the same mistakes in succeeding interviews.
2. Scrutinize the accomplished questionnaires for correctness, completeness and consistency of entries and return the problem questionnaires to the ENs for verification of the incorrect entries.
3. Conduct a random re-interview of households/respondents to ensure that the ENs really visited and interviewed the sample households and eligible respondents.
4. Help solve problems encountered by enumerators such as refusals, callbacks and others.
5. Ensure that expected outputs of the ENs are met.
6. Ensure that the ENs who were trained were the ones conducting the interview.
7. Collect the questionnaires from the ENs as well as accomplishment reports.
8. Be available if the ENs need assistance in relation to the conduct of the surveys.
9. Fill-up the Supervisor's Report Form (Attachment 4) which shall be submitted to the Regional Office.
Data Collection Notes
The training was conducted in fthree (3) levels.
- The first leveltraining held at at the Central Office, had the Task Force s participated by central office staff, Regional Administrators (RAs) and selected field personnel. The Central Office staff and selected field office personnel acted as trainers for the second level training held at the regional offices.
- The second level training was attended by the regional staff/assistans, Provincial Statistical Officers/Officers-in-Charge (PSO/OICs), and their assistants and selected District Statistical Officers (DSOs). They in turn acted as trainers in the third level training. The participants in the third level training were some District Statistical Officers (DSOs), Statistical coordination Officers (SCOs) and hired Statistical Researchers (SRs) involved in the operation.
- The third level training was held at the provincial offices.
The first phase of survey operation was conducted in July 1997 and data gathered were for the period January 1 to June 30, 1997. The second phase of operation was conducted in January 1998 and gathered information for the period July 1 to December 31, 1997.
Standard Output Per Day
The expected output of completed interviews per manday may vary. For this survey round, the average output is 1.5 households per manday including travel time. This amounts to 3 completed interviews every two (2) days.
Dealing with Enumeration and Related Problems
Non-response: One of the problems of any survey undertaking is the failure to get complete information from some respondents. This may be due to the inability of enumerator to find an eligible respondent at home for the interview, refusal of the respondent to be interviewed or insufficient effort and concern by the field enumerators to persuade respondents to be interviewed.
Revisiting the households who were not interviewed is one way of getting less incidence of non-response. As a general rule, the enumerator should make two callbacks or a total of three visits to the household.
If for any reason the respondent refuses to be interviewed, the enumerator should be tactful and patient in persuading the eligible respondents to be interviewed. The assurance that the information provided shall be held confidential and the degree of the respondents understanding of the purpose of the survey may convince the eligible respondent to grant an interview.
In case no member of the household is found at home and the neighbor informs the enumerator that the household would not be expected to be back within the enumeration period, he should make one last visit to the household to confirm the information. In case the household will be back within the enumeration period, make it a point to interview the household.
Statisticai Coordination Officers, National Statistics Office
Government of Philippines
Hired Statistical Researchers, National Statistics Office
Government of Philippines
The questionnaire has five main parts consisting of the following:
Part I. Identification and Other Information (Geographic Identification, Other Information and Particulars about the Family)
Part II. Expenditures and Other Disbursements
Section A. Food, Alcoholic Beverages and Tobacco
Section B. Fuel, Light and Water, Transportation and Communication, Household Operations
Section C. Personal Care and Effects, Clothing Footwear and Other Wear
Section D. Education, Recreation, and Medical Care
Section E. Furnishings and Equipment
Section F. Taxes
Section G. Housing, House Maintenance and Minor Repairs
Section H. Miscellaneous Expenditures
Section I. Other Disbursements
Part III. Income
Section A. Salaries and Wages from Employment
Section B. Net Share of Crops, Fruits and Vegetables Produced and/or Livestock and Poultry Raised by Other Households
Section C. Other Sources of Income
Section D. Other Receipts
Section E. Family Sustenance Activities
Part IV. Entrepreneurial Activities
Section A1. Crop Farming and Gardening
Section A2. Livestock and Poultry Raising
Section A3. Fishing
Section A4. Forestry and Hunting
Section A5. Wholesale and Retail
Section A6. Manufacturing
Section A7. Community, Social, Recreational and Personal Services
Section A8. Transportation, Storage and Communication Services
Section A9. Mining and Quarrying
Section A10. Construction
Section A11. Entrepreneurial Activities Not Elsewhere Classified
Part V: Health - Care
Section A. Health - care Expenditures
Section B. Health Insurance
The 1997 FIES questionnaire contains about 800 data items and a guide for comparing income and expenditures. The questionnaires were subjected to a rigorous manual and machine edit checks for completeness, arithmetic accuracy, range validity and internal consistency.
The electronic data processing system developed since 1985 FIES by the Information System Development Section was used in processing the 1997 FIES with few modifications.
There were thirteen major steps in the machine processing and these are as follows:
1. Data entry and verification
2. Structural editing (minor edit)
3. Edit list verification/correction
5. Completeness check
6. Completeness check list verification/correction
7. Identification verification
8. Identification verification extraction of summary file for preliminary results
9. Matching of visit records
12. Generation of CPI weights
13. Variance analysis
Steps 1 to 8 were performed right after each visit while the remaining steps were carried out upon completion of the data collection for the first and second visits.
Steps 1 to 7 were implemented at the regional office while the concluding steps were handled at the Central Office.
Estimates of Sampling Error
As in all surveys, two types of non-response were encountered in the 1997 FIES: Interview non-response and item non-response. Interview non-response refers to a sample household that could not be interviewed. Since the survey requires that the sample households be interviewed in both visits, households that transferred to another dwelling unit, temporarily away, on vacation, not at home, household unit demolished, destroyed by fire/typhoon and refusal to be interviewed in the second visit contributed to the number of interview non-response cases.
Item non-response, or the failure to obtain responses to particular survey items, resulted from factors such as respondents being unaware of the answer to a particular question, unwilling to provide the requested information or ENs' omission of questions during the interview. Deterministic imputation was done to address item nonresponse. This imputation is a process in which proper entry for a particular missing item was deduced from other items of the questionnaire where the non-response item was observed. Notes and remarks indicated in the questionnaire were likewise used as basis for imputation.
This (Census/Survey) conforms to the provisions of confidentiality stated under Section 4 of Commonwealth Act No. 591, which says that the "Data furnished to the Bureau of Census and Statistics (BCS) now known as the National Statistics Office, by an individual, corporation, partnership, institution or business enterprise shall not be used as evidence in any court or in any public office either as evidence against the individual, corporation, association, partnership, institution, or business enterprise from whom such data emanates; nor shall such data or information be divulged to any person except authorized employees of the BCS acting in the performance of their duties; nor shall such data be published except in the form of summaries or statistical tables in which no reference to an individual, corporation, association, partnership, institution or business enterprise shall appear."
Authorization to use this data is granted only to the client or data user and persons within its organization, if applicable. Under no circumstances shall the client reproduce, distribute, sell or lend the entire data or parts thereof to any other data user apart from himself or that of authorized employees in his organization. The NSO shall hold the data user fully responsible for safeguarding the data from any unauthorized access or use.
Before being granted access to the dataset, all users have to formally agree:
1. To make no copies of any files or portions of files to which s/he is granted access except those authorized by the NSO.
2. Not to use any technique in an attempt to learn the identity of any person, establishment, or sampling unit not identified in the dataset.
3. To hold in strictest confidence the identification of any establishment or individual that may be inadvertently revealed in any documents or discussion, or analysis. Such inadvertent identification revealed in her/his analysis will be immediately be reported to the NSO.
Any report, paper or similar articles, whether published or not, emanating from the use of this data shall give appropriate acknowledgement as suggested herein, “(Title of Census/Survey, version number and date), National Statistics Office, Manila, Philippines”, as the source of basic data. The data user or client is encouraged to provide NSO with a copy of such report, paper or article. It is understood that unless expressly allowed by the client, such report, paper or article shall not be used for any purpose other than monitoring.