The PNAD was deployed in the country, gradually in 1967 to be a search system for probabilistic samples of households nationwide, to meet various purposes related to demographic, health, food consumption and nutrition, housing and household equipment, education and culture, employment and economic status of the household. At the end of the 60s, PNAD already included the area covered by the current Northeast, Southeast and South and also the Federal District. Interrupted to perform the Census 1970, the National Household Survey began to be redeployed in 1971.
In 1973 until the end of the 70s - the survey covered the current Northeast area, the Southeast, South and the urban area of the current North and Midwest.
In 1974 and 1975 the Basic Search PNAD was brought to a standstill due to a Special Research called the National Study of Household Expenditure, then PNAD returned in 1976.
In 1980 PNAD was stopped in order to carry out the Census, and was restarted in 1981, now covering the whole country, except the rural area of the following units of the Federation : Rondônia, Acre, Amazonas, Roraima , Pará and Amapá. These areas together harbored about 3 % of the population of the country
Due to the postponement of the Census for 1991, on an exceptional basis PNAD was held in 1990 and suspended in 1991.
In 1992 PNAD resumed, keeping the same geographic coverage achieved in the 80's and remained unchanged until the end of the 90s.
In 1994, the National Household Survey/PNAD was not conducted due to the delay in the determination of research for the years 1992 and 1993.
In 2000, PNAD was again interrupted to perform the Census.
In 2001, the National Household Survey began keeping the same geographic range of the previous decade.
Since 2004, the National Household Survey investigates also the rural area of the Federal States of Rondônia, Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, Pará and Amapá.
Given the impossibility of continuously investigating all issues contained in these areas or exhaust any of them, PNAD was structured to have a Basic Research , Research and Research Special Supplemental.The Basic Search PNAD intended to investigate continuously, the topics identified as most important to measure the level and follow the evolution of the country 's socioeconomic population. The Supplemental Research intended to deepen the themes permanent and investigate other matters of interest that are interconnected with the Basic Search.The Special Research was designed to address issues of greater complexity, requiring treatment to the Basic Search, and may even require a sampling scheme distinguished. Since the implementation of the PNAD themes chosen to be surveyed , permanently, through the Basic Search, housing and work were associated with some demographic characteristics, education and income. Eventually, other issues were added to the Basic Search, but without acquiring the character of permanence.
In the period from 1981 to 1990 and 1992, 1993. 1995-2009 Research the Supplementary PNAD investigated the following topics :
1969 - Internal migration
1970 - Internal migration
1972 - Household Income ( special survey ) and fecundity
1973 - Migration, Fertility and Labor
1974/1975 - National Survey of Household Expenditure - ENDEF ( special survey on food consumption and family budget )
1976 - Social Mobility and People of Color ( special survey carried out by means of a subsample ), Migration and Fertility
1977 - Housing ( supplementary survey restricted to the Federal District and the metropolitan areas of Recife, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Porto Alegre ), Migration and Fertility
1978 - Fertility and Mortality
1979 - Power Consumption
1981 - Health
1982 - Education
1983 - Labor and welfare
1984 - Female Fertility
1985 - Situation lower ( supplementary survey restricted to the Federal District and at nine metropolitan areas existing at the time : Belém , Fortaleza, Recife, Salvador, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Curitiba and Porto Alegre )
1986 - Contraception ( special survey carried out by means of a subsample and restricted to women 15-54 years of age ), access to health care, food supplementation and Associations
1988 - Participation and political- social stock of appliances that use energy
1989 - Labour
1990 - Labour
The Supplementary Research on Social Political Participation covered the following topics : Victimization and Justice, Education, Means of Transportation, Registration and Associations ; Household Services, Social Mobility, Health Services, Migration, Religion, and Media. In the 1990s and from 2001 to 2008, the themes and topics further investigated, in addition to migration and fertility (which were maintained throughout this period to support the work of the IBGE ), were :
1992 - Teaching GED, Nuptiality and Work of children 5-9 years old
1993 - Teaching GED, Nuptiality and Work of children 5-9 years old
1995 - Teaching GED, Nuptiality and Work of children 5-9 years old
1996 - Social Mobility
1998 - Health and Work of children 5-9 years old
1999 - Work of children 5-9 years old
2001 - Child labor
2002 - Work of children 5-9 years old
2003 - Health, Participation in programs for education and work of children 5-9 years old
2004 - Additional aspects of education, access to income transfers from social programs and food security, and work of children 5-9 years old
2005 - Internet Access and Possession of a mobile telephone for personal use and work of children 5-9 years old
2006 - Additional aspects of education, access to income transfers from social programs, Child Labor
2007 - Additional aspects of youth education and adult education and professional work of children 5-9 years old
2008 - Tobacco (special survey), Health, Internet Access and Possession of a mobile telephone for personal use
2009 - Food Security, Victimization and Justice
2011 - Internet access and possession of a mobile telephone for personal use
2012 - Work of children 5-9 years
The National Household Survey - PNAD investigates annuall and permanently, general characteristics of the population, education , labor, income and housing, and others with varying regularity, according to the information needs for the country. Topics include characteristics on migration, fertility , marriage, health, food security, among other topics. The survey of these statistics is an important instrument for the formulation, validation and evaluation of policies to socio-economic development and the improvement of living conditions in Brazil.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The main characteristics investigated include:
A) Housing Characteristics - kind of the home;
For permanent households:
- Material of the walls and roof of the building;
- The number of rooms and dorms;
- Condition of occupation and the rent or monthly;
- Form of water supply and sanitation;
- Garbage disposal;
- Fuel used for cooking;
- Form of lighting;
- Existence of the telephone line, and
- The existence of durable goods - filter, stove, refrigerator, freezer, washing machine, radio, PC, DVD and TV.
B) General Demographic Characteristics:
- Color or race, and
- Household condition and family.
C) Migration Features:
- Naturalness in relation to the municipality and the unit of the Federation;
- Federation Unit of birth;
- Residence time in the municipality and Federation Unit of migrants, including the return, and
- Federal State of residence five years earlier and the reference date of the survey.
D) Characteristics of female fertility:
- Number of live births, by sex;
- The number of stillbirths, by sex;
- The number of children who were alive, by sex and
- Date of birth and sex of last child born alive .
E) Characteristics of education:
- Series and grade frequented by students, and
- Last grade completed, corresponding degree and graduation for people who are not students.
F) Characteristics of labor and income:
- Condition activity and employment in the reference week and the reference period of 365 days;
- Occupation, activity, status in employment, job category in the work of primary and secondary reference week in the main job of the period of 365 days or last job of the reference period of five years;
- Wages and hours worked in primary and secondary works and other works of reference week;
- Contribution to Social Security in primary and secondary works and other works of reference week and main work of 365 days;
- Time spent in the main job of the reference week and the main job of the reference period of 365 days;
- Employment sector and the area of public employment in the work of primary and secondary reference week and work main of 365 days;
- Time spent from home to work, place of business of the enterprise and the number of persons employed in the undertaking of the main job of the reference week;
- Relationship with the development of their own and employers in agricultural activities in the main job and the reference week in the main job of the reference period of 365 days;
- Form of payment, receipt of aid (food, transportation, education and health) and day shift or night employment in the main job of the reference week;
- Association union membership, contribution to pension and old who began working with the people working in the reference period of 365 days;
- Receiving unemployment insurance people without work during the reference week who left last job in the reference period of 365 days;
- Condition retired, pensioner and take care of the housework, regardless of activity status, and
- Income not arising from work, regardless of the condition of activity.
Producers and sponsors
Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics Foundation)
Diretoria de Pesquisas - Coord. de Trabalho e Rendimento (DPE/COREN)
Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE)
The survey is conducted by a random sample of households. The information is provided by person resident or non-resident, considered capable of providing information for the whole neighborhood and the home. The interviewer is instructed not to accept a person under 14 years of age as an informant. The sampling plan uses cluster sampling, self-weighted in three stages (respectively municipalities, census tracts and households) with geographical stratification of the units of the first stage set for each state. The large municipalities in terms of population and those belonging to the metropolitan areas were each treated as a stratum and therefore included in the sample with certainty, being called autorrepresentativos. The other municipalities within the same geographic microregion were grouped into strata of approximately equal size, and designated non autorrepresentativos. Strata in these municipalities were selected systematically with probability proportional to size (ppt).
Sectors are the unit of selection in the second stage and also are selected systematically and ppt, in which case the size is measured by the number of households. The sectors were stratified according to the situation of urban and rural states of the northern region, except for Tocantins, to allow comparison of indicators from PNADs after 2004 with those performed before insertion of the rural area of the northern states. In other regions this stratification is only implicit, ie, there is an ordering for the situation of the sector before the systematic selection. Municipalities and selected sectors are kept in the sample until they are available new Census data, when they are selected new units for the sample.
Each year, in each sector selected for the sample is prepared (or updated) in the field a listing of households, producing an updated register for selection. An important characteristic of this listing operation refers to the Register of New Buildings, which is prepared to contain the buildings account for large changes in the sizes of sectors. The inventory of new construction is done in the municipalities of the sample, both in the sectors selected for the sample as those not selected. An area of new construction is excluded from the area of the original sector and is dealt with separately at the time of selection of households in this case is performed according to the sample fraction of the area. Households, which are units of the third selection stage, are formed by private households and the housing units in collective households occupied during the listing operation. The initial number of households per sector in the sample was set at 16. The sampling fraction indicates the proportion of the population constituting the sample. Currently fractions ranging from 1/50 (rural area of Roraima) to 1/800 (Sao Paulo). How the selection of households in each selected sector for the sample is done systematically to ensure self-weighting sample, the selection range of households remains fixed from year to year. This procedure entails an annual increase in the number of households in the sample, it depends on the number of households upgraded the sector by listing operation. In PNAD 2008, approximately 151,000 households were selected. The final size of the sample of PNAD 2009 was approximately 851 municipalities, 7818 153837 sectors and households. In 2007 PNAD introduced the use of electronic collector ( Personal Digital Assistant - PDA) for carrying out data collection, making it possible to improve the research operating system. Also during PNAD 2007 the DIA system was used, which is an imputation system that automatically detects qualitative data errors. Developed by the National Institute of Statistics - INE of Spain, the software aims to facilitate debugging censuses and large statistical research. In this first year of use of the application, all steps of criticism usually applied to data from the National Household Survey core questionnaire were performed, followed by a process of simultaneous validation of the data collected. In 2008 PNAD used only the Canadian Census Edit and Imputation System - CANCEIS already including the procedures usually applied to critical data from the questionnaires. Starting from PNAD 2011 sample selection of Rondônia, Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, Pará and Amapá followed the same methodology in other units of the Federation.
The sample is self-weighted in three stages (respectively municipalities, census tracts and households).
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
The following instruments were used to facilitate data collection:
- Manual - New Constructions;
- Listing Manual;
- Interview Guide;
- Supervision Manual ;
- Coordination Manual ,
- Review Manual;
- User Manual;
- Area Handbook Listing - PNAD 2:01;
- Registration Listing Sheet- PNAD 2:02;
- Record Sheet of Collective Household Units - PNAD 2:03;
- Record Count of Household Units - PNAD 2.00,
- Sheet Summary Listing - PNAD 2:09;
- Registration of New Construction Projects - PNAD 2:10;
- Worksheet for Selecting Sample Units - PNAD 2:08;
- List of Sample Units Selected Areas of New Constructions - PNAD 2:20;
- List of Occupation codes, Activity and Migration;
- List of Occupation codes, Activity (Simplified Version);
- List of Controls matted;
- Review Plan;
- Questionnaire with Variables.
Forms of dissemination:
Printed publication with CD-ROM, CD-ROM with microdata, the IBGE's internet: complete publication microdata, CIDER - Automatic Recovery System Data, BME - Bank Multidimensional Statistics and Bank Statistical Metadata.
Level of disclosure: The results of the National Household Survey are published for Brazil, Major Regions, Federation Units and nine metropolitan areas (Belém, Recife, Fortaleza, Salvador, Belo Horizonte, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Curitiba and Porto Alegre).
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.