The 2010 Census marks the fifth National Census of Population and Housing conducted in Zambia since independence in 1964. The country has so far conducted censuses in 1969, 1980, 1990 and 2000.
The main objectives of the 2010 Census of Population and Housing were:
• To provide accurate and reliable information on the size, composition and distribution of the population of Zambia at the time of the census;
• To provide information on the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the population of Zambia at the lowest administrative level - the ward;
• To provide indicators for measuring progress towards national and international development goals in a timely and user friendly manner;
• To provide information on the number and characteristics of households engaged in agriculture and other economic activities;
• To provide an accurate sampling frame and sample weights for future inter-censal household and population based surveys;
• To provide information identifying the number of eligible voters for the 2011 General Elections;
• To provide a census that meets national and international standards and allows for comparability with other censuses;
• To provide information on the housing characteristics of the population.
Census Enumerators went out visiting all buildings in Zambia whether completed, incomplete, abandoned, habitable and inhabitable for the purpose of identifying characteristics of all buildings, households and other human aspects. All persons who lived in the buildings were counted and detailed information pertaining to their characteristics obtained.
Producers and sponsors
Central Statistical Office
Ministry of Finance and National Planning
The Census mapping methodology in 2010 was Geographic Information System (GIS) driven with the use of Satellite Imagery in urban areas and Global Positioning System (GPS) in rural areas.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
The Census was conducted by a team of about 25,000 school leavers (that had completed their Secondary School Education within 2-5 years prior to the Census) who worked as Census Enumerators, about 8,400 teachers and other civil servants who worked as Census Supervisors. Four hundred Civil Servants from various Government Departments and Ministries worked as Master Trainers, Assistant Master Trainers and Provincial Census Officers.
Data Collection Notes
The 2010 Census of Population and Housing was successfully conducted between 16th October and 15th November 2010. However, field enumeration was only concluded in all parts of the country on 30th November 2010. A total of 3.2 million questionnaires were used to collect data from every individual and household covered during the census.
Persons who were present at the time of the enumerator’s visit were counted directly as Usual Household Members present at the Housing Unit/Dwelling or as Visitors of the Household. This is what is called De Facto Population. While those who were absent were enumerated by proxy, that is, as Usual Household Members Absent from the Housing Unit/Dwelling at the time of the enumerator’s visit. the Housing Unit/Dwelling at the time of the enumerator’s visit together with the Usual Household Members Absent from the Housing Unit/Dwelling is what is called the De Jure Population or True Population.
Detailed personal information was only collected for Usual Household Members present and Visitors found at the Housing Unit/Dwelling at the time of the enumerator’s visit, while for Usual Household Members Absent, only Age, Sex, Relationship to Household Head and Residence Status were collected by proxy from the main respondent for the Household. Therefore, while the True Population is obtained from the De Jure Count, detailed analysis of the population by background characteristics is based on the De Facto count, because it is the De Facto Population from whom all details in the questionnaire were collected during enumeration.
The 2010 Census used a single questionnaire to capture individual, household and housing characteristics from the population. The 2010 Census differs from the 2000 Census by including questions on deaths of Household Members during the 12 months period prior to the census enumeration, as well as cause of death for all reported deaths.
Included for the first time were questions on maternal deaths to women aged 12-49 years during the reference period (12 months prior to the Census). Questions were asked of female household members aged 12-49 years that were reported to have died during the reference period (12 months prior to the census), whether
the death had occurred while the woman was pregnant, during childbirth or six weeks after the end of a pregnancy, regardless of the outcome of the pregnancy. Another new addition was the question on whether one was an Albino or not.
In April 2011, the Central Statistical Office started the data capture and processing of the 2010 Census questionnaires. Scanning of the 2010 Census questionnaires started in April 2011 and was successfully concluded in August 2011. The data capture used Optical Mark Reading (OMR) and Intelligent Character Recognition (ICR) technology in order to speed up the processing time. Data verification and development of edit and imputation specifications and programmes started in May and was completed in November 2011.
Methods of evaluation applied were:
• Direct Method: Post Enumeration Survey (PES)- a sample of households is revisited after the census and data are again collected but on a smaller scale and later compared with that collected during the actual census.
• Indirect Method: Comparison of data using both internal and external consistency checks. Internal consistency checks compare relationships of data within the same census data, whereas external consistency checks compare census data with data generated from other sources.
• Omission or duplication of individuals, households, or housing units resulting in under or over enumeration.
• Lack of accessibility or cooperation with respondents.
• Lack of proper boundary descriptions on maps.
Coverage errors can be measured by examining certain statistics such as growth rate, age composition, child woman ratio and dependency ratio.
Content errors refer to instances where characteristics such as age, sex, marital status, economic activity, etc. of a person enumerated in a census or survey are incorrectly reported or tabulated.
• Content errors are caused by either a respondent giving a wrong response or by an enumerator recording an incorrect response.
• 2010 census errors were estimated by the use of the Myers' Index, Sex Ratios, Age Ratios and Population Pyramids.
For findings, please refer to the presentation on census data evaluation provided as external resources.
Confidentiality of respondents is guaranteed under the provisions of the Census and Statistics Act, CAP 127 of the laws of Zambia.
The Director of the Central Statistical Office has to authorise access to information. Before being granted access to the dataset or any other information produced by CSO, all users have to formally agree to the following:
1. To make no copies of any files or portions of files to which s/he is granted access except those authorized by the Central statistical Office.
2. Not to use any technique in an attempt to learn the identity of any person, establishment or sampling unit not identified on public use data files
3. To hold in the strictest confidence the identification of any establishment or individual that may be inadvertently revealed in any documents or discussion or analysis. Such inadvertent identification revealed in the user's analysis will be immediately brought to the attention of the Central Statistical office.
4. The data will be used for statistical and scientific research purposes only.
5. The data and other materials will not be redistributed or sold to other individuals, institutions, or organisation without the written agreement of the CSO.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
e.g. Central Statistical Office, 2011 Census of Population and Housing, (Census 2011) Version 1.0 (2014), provided by Central Statistical Office
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