National Labor Force Survey (SAKERNAS) 1998 activity is a continuation of periodic surveys that held annually in every August. The purpose of annual SAKERNAS 1998 is to provide continous basis data of employment every year. Specifically to obtain information/data of population that employed, unemployed, temporarily not work, and population that ever stop/move work, as well as its development at the level of district/city, province or nationwide, and some additional informations. The provision of employment data is responsibility of The Sub-Directorate of Manpower Statistics, Statistics Indonesia (BPS) and carried out especially through SAKERNAS in all provinces of Indonesia. The other sources of employment data among others are from National Socio-Economic Survey (SUSENAS), Population Census (SP), and Intercensal Population Survey (SUPAS). The concepts and definitions used for the labor force data are similar for all surveys and censuses since 1976, except for the unemployment rate and employment status, which have been extended since 2001.
Throughout its history, SAKERNAS has undergone a series of changes in its coverage, the frequency of enumeration, the number of households sampled and the type of information collected. SAKERNAS first held in 1976, followed in 1977 and 1978, and has been conducted regularly on annual basis since 1986. From 1986 to 1993 the survey was held quarterly, from 1994 to 2001 was drawn annually every August, and from 2002 to 2004 held annually and quarterly. The quarterly SAKERNAS is intended to monitor early indicators of employment in Indonesia, which refers to the KILM (the Key Indicators of the Labour Market) that recommended by the ILO. Starting in 2005, SAKERNAS implemented semesterly until 2010, in every February and August. Since August 2007, SAKERNAS's data presentation was designed to be representative until the district/city level in every August (and the sample size is almost quadrupled), while in February until provincial level only. Starting from 2011, the survey has been taken place quarterly, which is every February, May, August, and November, where the quarterly data presentation was designed until provincial level. In the third quarter SAKERNAS (August )- apart from quarterly sample- additional sample was also provided for annual number as an estimation of data presentation up to the district/city level.
Series of data publications available are data publications of Labor Force Situation in Indonesia (Publikasi Keadaan Angkatan Kerja di Indonesia) years 1976, 1977, 1978, 1982, 1986, 1989-2012, the publication of Labour/Worker Situation in Indonesia (Publikasi Keadaan Pekerja di Indonesia) years 1982, 1986, 1989-2012. A special module was added in February 2008, asking questions about job-seeking, training, union membership, contract workers, and severance payments, aimed at providing a better understanding of the main obstacles to employment creation (a question in 1997's SAKERNAS also asking about obstacles in getting job).
National Labor Force Survey (SAKERNAS) is a survey that is designed to observe the general situation of workforce and also to understand whether there is a change of workforce structure between the enumeration period. Since the survey was initiated in 1976, it has undergone a series of changes affecting its coverage, the frequency of enumeration, the number of households sampled and the type of information collected. It is the largest and most representative source of employment data in Indonesia. For each selected household, the general information about the circumstances of each household member that includes the name, relationship to head of household, sex, and age were collected. Household members aged 10 years and over will be prompted to give the information about their marital status, education and employment.
SAKERNAS is aimed to gather informations that meet three objectives: 1.Employment by education, working hours, industrial classification and employment status, 2.Unemployment and underemployment by different characteristics and efforts on looking for work, 3.Working age population not in the labor force (e.g. attending schools, doing housekeeping and others).
The data for annual SAKERNAS was gathered in August 1998 covered all provinces in Indonesia with 57,456 households, scattered both in rural and urban areas and representative until provincial level. The main household data is taken from core questionnaire of SAK1998.AK.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data
Unit of Analysis
v01: basic raw data obtained from BPS
The main information collected in the National Labor Force Survey is data on individual household members aged 10 years and over, however tabulated data covers household members aged 15 years and older (working-age). Household individual data consists of:
1. Member identification: name, relationship to the head of household, sex, age, marital status and educational attainment.
2. Activities in the past one week: working (at least an hour for a week), temporarily not working, looking for work, attending school, doing housekeeping, and others (retired, disabled, etc.)
2. For those who were working and temporarily not working but having jobs (such as on leave): they were asked for their main job total working days, total number of working hours, industry, occupation, employment status, and total wage/salary in month.
3. For those who were looking for work: they were asked the main reason for looking for work, type of effort to find a job , duration of job seeking, and type of job full or part-time.
Doing Business / Business Regulation
Urban / Rural
Salary / Wage / Income
National coverage* including urban and rural area, representative until provincial level.
*) Although covering all of Indonesia, there are some circumstances when not all provincial were covered. For example, in 2000, the Province of Maluku excluded in SAKERNAS because horizontal conflicts occurred there. Also, the separation of East Timor from Indonesia in 1999 also changed the scope of SAKERNAS for the years to come. After that, due to the expansion of regional autonomy as a consequence, the proportion of samples per Province is also changed, as in 2006 when the number of provinces are already 33. However, the difference is only on the number of influential scope/level but not to the pattern. On the other hand, changes in the methodology (including sample size) over time is likely to affect the outcome, for example in years 2000 and 2001, when sample size is only 32.384 and 34.176 the level of data presentation is only representative to island level, (insufficient sample size even to make it representative to provincial level).
The survey covered all de jure household members (usual residents), aged 10 years and over that resident in the household. However, Diplomatic Corps households, households that are in the specific enumeration area and specific households in the regular enumeration area are not chosen as a sample.
Producers and sponsors
Subdirectorate of Manpower Statistics
BPS (Statistics Indonesia)
Government of Indonesia
Funding the study
Annual SAKERNAS 1998 was implemented in the whole territory of the Republic of Indonesia, with a total sample of about 57,456 households, both in rural and urban areas and representative until provincial level. Diplomatic Corps households, households that are in the specific enumeration area and specific households in the regular enumeration area are not chosen as a sample.
The sampling method* for annual SAKERNAS 1998 is three-stages cluster sampling design (with separate processes for rural areas and urban areas) with segment group ( kelseg) as the primary sampling unit (PSU) and household as the ultimate sampling unit. PSUs were selected with probability proportional to size from chosen enumeration area (wilcah). A number of households were taken randomly from selected PSUs. However, there is documentation explained about how the sample size was determined at the domain level, or stratification measures that were implemented and also, the sample size allocation across strata, and also detail information about sample frame formation**.
In SAKERNAS 1990 - 2000 the terms "census block and sub-block census" is not used, instead terms "enumeration area" (wilcah) and "segment group" (kelseg) used. Sample design of SAKERNAS 1998 through differentiated sample selection between urban areas and rural areas by these procedure.
The design of urban sample:
1. In the first stage, selected a number of areas of systematic census urban areas list the results of the 1996 Economic Census.
2. In the second stage, from any number of selected areas, selected a group of segments in PPS (Probability Proportional to Size) based on the number of households in the group segment, SE96 listing results.
3. In the third stage, selected 14 households from each group selected segments systematically.
The design of rural sample:
1. In the first stage: selected a number of enumeration areas systematically from KCI (Framework of Example Sources).
2. In the second stage, from each selected enumeration areas, selected segment groups by PPS regarding the number of households in the group segment, result of Population Census 1990 listing process.
3. In the third stage, systematically selected 14 households from each segment group previously chosen.
Establishment of the sample frames is in three stages, namely:
1. Establishment of the sample frame used in the selection of enumeration area,
2. Establishment of the sample frame for the selection of segment group (kelseg),
3. Establishment of the sample frame for the selection of households.
*) Sampling method used is varied in different years. For example, in SAKERNAS period of 1986-1989 sampling method used is the method of rotation, where most of the households selected at one period was re-elected in the following period. This often happens on quarterly SAKERNAS on that period. At other periods often use multi-stages sampling method (two or three stages depend on whether sub block census / segment group included or not), or a combination of multi stages sampling also with rotation method (e.g. SAKERNAS 2006-2010).
**) Commonly, annual SAKERNAS sample frame comes from the last population census result undertaken before SAKERNAS. For example, for annual SAKERNAS 2003 used sample frame derived from "listing process" of household results of Population Census 2000. Also can refer to sampling frame of some periodic household based census like Economic Census, e.g. block census sample frame of SAKERNAS 2007 formed by using Economic Census 2006 result. In the other hand sample frame used for quarterly SAKERNAS is from the list of households obtained from National Socio-Economic Survey (SUSENAS) Core activities held before Sakernas, e.g. for quarterly SAKERNAS 2002/2003 activities, used sample frame which derived from households of the selected districts of SUSENAS 2002.
To compare the smallest unit sample of SAKERNAS with actual population a weight variable is included in the data file.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Since SAKERNAS regularly held in 1986, training for enumeration teams frequently conducted. In addition, also created a job descriptions and role relationship between the field officers in clear instruction making it easy in execution. The other supporting thing is officers (enumerator) involved in SAKERNAS, mainly from employees of the BPS in sub-district area (called Mantis) and employees of BPS at district/city level. Most of them generally have had experience in a variety of surveys and censuses as well as have more control of the field area. Different with activities of Population Census, as well as SUSENAS, SUPAS that most of the enumerators is not the employee of BPS, but aid / freelance worker called BPS Statistic Partners (Mitra Statistik).
Government of Indonesia
In SAKERNAS, the questionnaire has been designed in a simple and concise way. It is expected that respondents will understand the aim of question of survey and avoid the memory lapse and uninterested respondents during data collection. Furthermore, the design of SAKERNAS's questionnaire remains stable in order to maintain data comparison.
A household questionnaire was administered in each selected household, which collected general information of household members that includes name, relationship with head of the household, sex and age. Household members aged 10 years and over were then asked about their marital status, education and occupation.
Stages of data processing in Sakernas are through process of:
- Data Entry
Estimates of Sampling Error
Sampling error results are presented at the end of the publication of The State of Labor Force in Indonesia and in publication of The State of Workers in Indonesia.
This SAKERNAS metadata cataloging is contribution of The World Bank - Indonesia, with credits to The Subdirectorate of Manpower Statistics of BPS and other parties from BPS for the technical guidances, and also credits to The Australian National University (ANU), The Australian Data Archive (ADA), The Rand Corporation and other parties for the references.
All data usage is under the terms and conditions issued by Directorate of Statistical Dissemination of Statistics Indonesia (BPS).
Data is owned by BPS (Statistics Indonesia). Please contact BPS for more information about data request.
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Subdirectorate of Manpower Statistics, Statistics Indonesia (BPS). National Labor Force Survey 1998 (SAKERNAS 1998) Ref. IDN_1998_SAKERNAS_v01_M. Data downloaded from http://microdatalib.worldbank.org on 20th December 2012.
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency, and any organizations or people cited in this documentation, bear no responsibility for use of the data and the documentation or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
World Bank Indonesia, Poverty Team
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 1 (March 1, 2013): Initial version of DDI Documentation.
Version 2 (Februari 17, 2014): Revision of DDI Documentation.