In 1966 the Turkish Statistical Institute (TURKSTAT) launched the first labour force survey in eight industrialized cities on a pilot study basis. In November 1967, April and November 1968, TURKSTAT extended the coverage of the survey to 106 localities with population of more than 2 000 and one sub district with population of less than 2000.
During 1973-1974, TURKSTAT carried out a series of surveys including the labour force survey and rural areas working survey in the rural areas where 60% of the population lived. In June and October 1973 and April 1974, the HLFS was carried out in 401 rural settlements with population less than 2 000. A rural areas working survey that continued for a year was carried out in July 1973. This survey was carried out in 402 villages with a population of less than 2000. Information on the number of days worked and working hours of the persons who worked in the rural areas was collected in this survey.
Between 1975 and 1981, the HLFS were not conducted. During 1982-1984 another series of labour force surveys were conducted with the reference period taken as the last week of October of each year. These surveys were conducted in the urban areas, based on a revised questionnaire and with an enlarged sample, urban areas were defined as all settlements with a population of 10 001 and over.
In 1985 the first labour force survey covering both rural and urban areas was conducted with a modified questionnaire and with a redesigned sample. The urban areas were defined as all settlements with a population of more than 20000 and rural areas as settlements with a population of 20000 or less. Household Labour Force surveys were not conducted in 1986 and 1987.
1988 - 1999
The main goal of the labour force surveys in the new series started in the year 1988 was to set questionnaire and tabulation plan which make it possible for users to analyze labour market from different aspects and put an end to the concept confusion on labour market. Also it was aimed to constitute definitions appropriate for international comparison.
The Household Labour Force surveys in which the latest international standards (ILO, Thirteenth International Conference of Labour Statisticians, 1982) were used, had been applied from October 1988, within 15 days following the last week of October and April starting on Monday and ending on Sunday in each year. The results were published for Turkey, urban and rural areas. The last application of this survey was October 1999 HLFS.
2000 - 2003
In year 2000, some changes were made on the application frequency, sample size, estimation dimension, reference period and questionnaire of the survey. These changes were improved taking into account the need of comparisons with the existent series.
It is aimed to increase the sensibility of estimation by increasing the sample size and frequency of the survey with the new design. This design was firstly used in October 1999 HLFS.
The selected households are followed during four periods with the new sampling design. The main reason of this sampling design is to minimize the fluctuation coming from the sampling. Some new questions were also added to the HLFS questionnaire in year 2000.
Important changes were made on estimation dimension of HLFS in accordance with country needs in the year 2000. The field application of the survey has realized monthly and estimations have given quarterly for Turkey, urban and rural areas since 2000. Yearly results were given for Turkey, urban and rural areas, seven geographical regions and nine province centers. On the yearly estimates, quarterly data sets were gathered to constitute yearly data and results of the survey were re-weighted by using the mid-year population projections.
The results of the survey which had been given for the population 12 years old and over up to 2000, have been given for the 15 years old and over since year 2000. In addition, since year 2000, “employed” and “unemployed who worked in a job before”, have been classified according to the International Standard Industrial Classification 1990 Revise 3 (ISIC Rev. 3) and this classification was used until 2004. Since 2001 “employed”, “unemployed who are seeking a job” and “person who worked in a job before”, have been classified according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO,88) and the results of the survey have been given according to this classification.
The main objective of the Household Labour Force Survey is to obtain information on the structure of the labour force in the country. This includes information on economic activity, occupation, status in employment and hours worked for employed persons; and information on the duration of unemployment and occupation sought by the unemployed.
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Individual 12 years old and over
- Demographic characteristics: age, sex, marital status, place/country of birth, place/country of previous residence, educational attainment, relationship to household head;
- Main labour related characteristics: employment, unemployment, underemployment, hours of work, wages, informal employment, social security coverage, training received, absence from work;
- Other labour related characteristics: industry, occupation, status in employment, institutional sector (public/private), size of establishment, full time/part time status, permanency of the job, type of workplace, duration of employment, existence of more than one job, characteristics of the second job(s), duration of unemployment, previous working experience, characteristics of the last job, search for another job, reasons for seeking another job, methods of looking for work, reasons for not being in the labour force.
All the population excluding aliens, the residents of schools, dormitories, kindergartens, rest home for elderly persons, special hospitals, military barracks and recreation quarters for officers.
Producers and sponsors
Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat)
Sample design is contracted on yearly basis. Yearly estimates are required by whole Turkey, rural/urban, SRE Level 1 (urban-rural) and SRE Level 2.
Rotation pattern for the sample design on yearly basis is adapted to achieve the following objectives:
- quarterly level estimation of whole Turkey and rural-urban;
- measurement of the change between successive rounds (quarters);
- accumulation of the quarterly results to get annual estimates;
- measurement of the change between successive years.
Results of the household labour force survey have been weighted and published by the most recent population projections.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Data Collection Notes
Reference and application period: The first week of each month starting with Monday and ending with Sunday was used as the reference period. The field application starts after the reference week and is completed within 15 days.
All the information was collected by interviewers on a face-to-face basis with the help of portable computers.
The questionnaire was redesigned considering many factors together. The definitions of international standards were taken into consideration and adapted to the Turkish circumstances through the UNDP/ILO Project. In addition, new concepts such as the informal sector were aimed to be measured. Modifications on questionnaire were made in order to reflect possible changes in the labour force status in Turkey, and to produce internationally comparable data. For this reason the labour force questionnaire used by EUROSTAT was examined and a questionnaire was designed which would provide data comparable data with EUROSTAT.
Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat)
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Turkish Statistical Institute. Turkey Household Labour Force Survey (HLFS) 2002, Ref.TUR_2002_HLFS_v01_M. Dataset downloaded from [URL] on [date].
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.
DDI Document ID
Development Data Group
The World Bank
Poverty - GP
The World Bank
Date of Metadata Production
DDI Document version
Version 02 (November 2015)
The title of the study was changed from Labour Force survey (LFS) to Household Labour Force Survey (HLFS).