This is the third and final round of data collected towards the Impact Evaluation.
The Baseline Survey was conducted in 2013 and the Midline Survey in 2016.
The Nepal Agriculture and Food Security Project (AFSP) aims to improve the livelihood of poor farmers by increasing agricultural output and improving nutritional practices. AFSP is funded by the Global Agriculture and Food Security Project (GAFSP), supervised by the World Bank, and implemented by the Ministries of Agricultural Development (MoAD) and Health (MoH). AFSP includes 19 districts1 of the mid- and far-western development regions of Nepal. It intends to benet 162,000 people living in hill and mountain areas of the country.
According to the Project Appraisal Document (PAD), the Project Development Objective (PDO) is to enhance food and nutritional security of the targeted communities in select locations of Nepal. The project hypothesizes a link between this food security/nutrition and increased productivity of on-farm income from
both cultivation of crops and rearing of livestock. Additional Results indicators for the project include:
- Increase in the productivity of targeted crops
- Increase in the yield of targeted livestock products
- Increase in the proportion of pregnant and nursing mothers and children between 6-24 months' age adopting appropriate feeding practices.
Following from these objectives, and the indicators laid out in the PAD, the IE was designed in order to capture both the direct targets of the project, as well as its envisioned mechanism pathways. These form the core outcomes measured and described in this report.
In order to achieve its targets, AFSP consists of four components:
1. Technology Development and Adaptation
2. Technology Dissemination and Adoption (TDA)
3. Food and Nutrition Status Enhancement (FNSE)
4. Project Management
The Impact Evaluation (IE) of AFSP concentrates on components 2 and 3. Component 2, TDA, aims to introduce farmers to new production and management methods for both crops and livestock in order to improve their yields and income using a Farmer Field Schools (FFS) approach. Component 3, FNSE, aims to improve feeding practices of young children and of pregnant women, primarily through Behavior Change Communication (BCC).
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
The scope of the Endline Survey includes:
Section A: Household Identification
Section A, Part 1: Location
Section A, Part 2: Verification
Section A, Part 3: Date and Time of interview
Section A, Part 4: Target Respondent
Section B: Individual Identification
Section B, Part 1: HH Roster
Section B, Part 2: HH Labor
Section C: Extension
Section D: Agriculture
Section D, Part 1: Plot Identification
Section D, Part 2: Production
Section D, Part 3: Ag Labor
Section D, Part 4: Irrigation
Section D, Part 5: Ag Inputs
Section D, Part 6: Technologies
Section E: Housing
Section F: Assets, Income, Expenditures
Section F, Part 1: Assets
Section F, Part 2: Income
Section F, Part 3: Expenditures
Section F, Part 4: Food Consumption
Section G: Farmer Groups
Section H:Livestock and Poultry
Section H, Part 1: Livestock Roster
Section H, Part 2: Livestock Products
Section I: Finances
Section J: Kitchen Gardens
Section K, Part 1: Dietary Diversity
Section K, Part 2: Months of Inadequate Food
Section K, Part 3: HH Hunger ScaKe
Section N: Insurance
The endline survey followed up with households that were interviewed at the baseline, as well some of the additional households sampled during the midline survey, one year prior.
Producers and sponsors
Paul Christian (Development Impact Evaluation (DIME))
The World Bank
The World Bank
Global Agriculture Food Security Program
The AFSP project includes 10 VDCs in each of the 19 project districts. 8 of the 10 project VDCs were selected for the impact evaluation, along with 4 VDCs per district not receiving AFSP. There were a few exceptions to this 4 external controls per district "rule". Specifically, in 2 districts (Jajarkot, Dhadeldura) there were no suitable external controls found, so all 10 AFSP VDCs were surveyed. (For ex. in Dadeldhura there are only 20 VDCs, and KISAN was working in the 10 non-AFSP VDCs). In 2 districts (Pyuthan and Kalikot), all 10 AFSP VDCs plus 4 external controls were surveyed to 'make up' for surveying only 10 VDCs in Jajarkot and Dadeldhura, which serve as long-term controls. The AFSP Endline Survey was thus conducted in 228 VDCs.
The endline survey followed up with households that were interviewed at the baseline, as well some of the additional households sampled during the midline survey, one year prior. Before conducting the baseline survey, the survey firm completed a household census in each VDC to identify households that meet eligibility criteria for AFSP interventions. The census included a list of questions on household composition, land and livestock ownership, and interest in participating in agricultural projects. The census data was used to establish eligibility for AFSP interventions, and to construct the sample frame for the IE. In each VDC, the team drew a random sample of 10 households to be tracked across the length of project implementation. The selection gave preference to households with young children, as they are most likely to benefit from both the nutrition and the agricultural interventions of AFSP. The household census and sampling were coordinated closely with the local officials responsible for forming AFSP groups to ensure that the sampled households were very likely to end up joining the groups.
Deviations from the Sample Design
At baseline, 2280 household were surveyed, and this increased to 3157 households at midline. The sample was increased in 12 out of 19 districts to ensure that pregnant women and mothers of infants could be included in the sample since baseline households may not be guaranteed to have women with this profile. These 12 districts were purposefully chosen as the ones where Suaahara interventions had not yet expanded across the full district.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Computer Assisted Personal Interview [capi]
The DIME team has been working closely with operational and program management staff from both the GoN and the World Bank (WB) from the inception of this IE. Throughout the IE process, the MoAD, MoHP, and WB teams are supported by a full-time DIME field coordinator based in Kathmandu who oversees day-to-day IE activities and ensures full communication across the various entities (research, operations and management).
Data Collection Notes
New ERA conducted the AFSP endline survey from September to December 2017. The survey team used SurveyCTO - a cloud-based data collection software that delivers questionnaires through Android tablets - to gather information from each household in the sample.
The World Bank
The questionnaire focused on agricultural production and food security, and contained modules on housing, labor, education, health, income and expenditures, assets, and rural finance. The questionnaire is provided in English, available under the Documentation tab.
The World Bank
The World Bank
The variables treatment in the dataset needs to be embargoed for 2 years from submission date.
- Licensed datasets, accessible under conditions
The use of the datasets must be acknowledged using a citation which would include: - the identification of the Primary Investigator (including country name); - the full title of the survey and its acronym (when available), and the year(s) of implementation; - the survey reference number; - the source and date of download (for datasets disseminated online).
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.