Afrobarometer collects and disseminates information regarding Africans’ views on democracy, governance, economic reform, civil society, and quality of life. Round 1 surveys were conducted between 1999 and 2001. At that time, the project covered seven countries in Southern Africa (Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe), three countries in West Africa (Ghana, Nigeria and Mali) and two in East Africa (Uganda and Tanzania). Round 2 surveys were completed by November 2003 with four new countries added: Kenya, Senegal, Cape Verde and Mozambique. Round 3 surveys were conducted from March 2005 to February 2006 in the same countries, plus Benin and Madagascar. Round 4 surveys were conducted during 2008 and 2009 in 20 countries, reflecting the addition of Burkina Faso and Liberia.
The Afrobarometer is a comparative series of public attitude surveys that assess African citizen's attitudes to democracy and governance, markets, and civil society, among other topics. The surveys have been undertaken at periodic intervals since 1999. The Afrobarometer's coverage has increased over time. Round 1 (1999-2001) initially covered 7 countries and was later extended to 12 countries. Round 2 (2002-2004) surveyed citizens in 16 countries. Round 3 (2005-2006) 18 countries. The survey covered 20 countries in Round 4 (2008-2009).
Kind of Data
Sample survey data [ssd]
Unit of Analysis
Version 01: Edited, anonymized dataset for public distribution
Each Afrobarometer survey collects data about individual attitudes and behavior, including innovative indicators especially relevant to developing societies. This includes the following topics:
• Democracy - Popular understanding of, support for, and satisfaction with democracy, as well as any desire to return to, or experiment with, authoritarian alternatives.
• Governance - The demand for, and satisfaction with, effective, accountable and clean government; judgments of overall governance performance and social service delivery.
• Livelihoods - How do African families survive? What variety of formal and informal means do they use to gain access to food, shelter, water, health, employment and money?
• Macro-economics and markets - Citizen understandings of market principles and market reforms and their assessments of economic conditions and government performance at economic management.
• Social capital - Whom do people trust? To what extent do they rely on informal networks and associations? What are their evaluations of the trustworthiness of various institutions?
• Conflict and crime - How safe do people feel? What has been their experience with crime and violence?
• Participation - The extent to which ordinary people join in development efforts, comply with the laws of the land, vote in elections, contact elected representatives, and engage in protest. The quality of electoral representation.
• National identity - How do people see themselves in relation to ethnic and class identities? Does a shared sense of national identity exist?
conflict, security and peace [4.1]
domestic political issues [4.2]
government, political systems and organisations [4.4]
mass political behaviour, attitudes/opinion [4.6]
political ideology [4.7]
business/industrial management and organisation [2.2]
mass media [7.4]
social exclusion [12.9]
cultural activities and participation [13.2]
cultural and national identity [13.3]
religion and values [13.5]
social behaviour and attitudes [13.6]
social change [13.7]
social conditions and indicators [13.8]
The sample universe for Afrobarometer surveys includes all citizens of voting age within the country. In other words, we exclude anyone who is not a citizen and anyone who has not attained this age (usually 18 years) on the day of the survey. Also excluded are areas determined to be either inaccessible or not relevant to the study, such as those experiencing armed conflict or natural disasters, as well as national parks and game reserves. As a matter of practice, we have also excluded people living in institutionalized settings, such as students in dormitories and persons in prisons or nursing homes.
Producers and sponsors
The Institute for Democracy in South Africa (IDASA)
Ghana Centre for Democratic Development (CDD-Ghana)
Michigan State University (MSU)
Department for International Development
Swedish Internation Development Cooperation Agency
United States Agency for International Development
World Bank Group
Sample size: 1200
Sampling frame: 2006 population projections provided by the Central Statistics Office (CSO) based on CSO’s 2001 national population census.
Sample universe: Citizens age 18 years or older, excluding institutions
Sample design: Nationally representative, random, clustered, stratified, multistage area probability sample.
Stratification: Districts and urban/semi-urban/rural
Stages: SSUs (Localities, rural areas only), PSUs (Enumeration Areas), start points, households and respondents.
SSU/PSU selection: Probability proportionate to population size (PPPS)
Cluster size: Two PSUs per SSU (rural only), 8 households per PSU
Household selection: Randomly selected start points, followed by walk pattern using 5/10 interval.
Respondent selection: Gender quota filled by alternating interviews between men and women; respondents of appropriate gender were listed, after which a household member draws a numbered card to select an individual.
Response rate of the survey was 98.4%.
Weighted to account for individual selection probabilities.
Dates of Data Collection
Data Collection Mode
Department of Political and Administrative Studies, University of Botswana
Margin of error: +/- 3% with 95% confidence level.
For general inquiries
For general inquiries
Public use files, available to all
Use of the dataset must be acknowledged using a citation which would include:
- the Identification of the Primary Investigator
- the title of the survey (including country, acronym and year of implementation)
- the survey reference number
- the source and date of download
Afrobarometer Data, [Country(ies)], [Round(s)], [Year(s)], available at http://www.afrobarometer.org.
Disclaimer and copyrights
The user of the data acknowledges that the original collector of the data, the authorized distributor of the data, and the relevant funding agency bear no responsibility for use of the data or for interpretations or inferences based upon such uses.